The Effectiveness of Perceptual Enrichment on Self-Efficacy in Third Grade Primary School Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Document Type : Original Articles


1 PhD Student of Educational Psychology, Department of Psychology, School of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Psychology, School of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology and Education of Children with Special Needs, School of Education and Psvchology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran



Introduction: The ability to read is one of the most critical skills in today’s modern world. Since many people have reading problems, the early and correct diagnosis and effective treatment seem necessary. The present study aims to determine the effectiveness of perceptual enrichment on the self-efficacy in the third grade children suffering from dyslexia in Hamadan, Iran.Materials and Methods: 5o children participated in this randomized controlled clinical trial, all of whom were suffering from dyslexia and studying at the third grade of primary school in the city of Hamadan in the school year 2019-2020. The subjects were selected using the purposive method and randomly divided into the two experimental and control groups. The intervention consisted of 21 sessions. The control group, with the agreement of the child and the parents, did not have any parallel treatment process during the study. In the experimental and control groups, the Motivational Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was used. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the data.Results: The results showed that the native pattern of perceptual enrichment had a significant effect on improving self-efficacy in children with dyslexia (P > 0.01).Conclusion: The study findings suggested that the native pattern of perceptual enrichment is effective in improving self-efficacy in the children with dyslexia.


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  • Receive Date: 15 October 2020
  • Revise Date: 02 June 2022
  • Accept Date: 22 May 2022
  • First Publish Date: 22 May 2022