The Effect of Erector Spinae Muscle Fatigue on the Sensation of Trunk, Hip, and Knee Position among the Male Karate Athletes

Document Type : Original Articles


1 Department of Biomechanics, School of Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Biomechanics, School of Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran



Introduction: Proprioception (PP) and balance play a significant role in improving performance and preventing acute and chronic sport injuries. Muscle fatigue can be one of the factors that may interfere with signaling sensory input to the brain, and disturb the balance. The effect of muscle fatigue on this sensation has hardly been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of erector spinae muscle fatigue on the sensation (PP) of trunk, hip and knee among the male Karate athletes.Materials and Methods: 10 male karate athletes participating in Iranian national league matches were recruited in this study. Absolute error of active angles reconstruction (the trunk in 45 degrees of flexion, the hip in 30 degrees of abduction and flexion in open kinetic chain, and the knee in 30 and 60 degrees of flexion in closed kinetic chain) was measured by filming and analyzed, using AutoCAD software in pretest and posttest. Sorensen test was used as fatigue protocol.Results: The t test showed that erector spinea muscle fatigue had a significant effect on trunk flexion in 45 degrees (P = 0.046), and dominant (P = 0.001), and non-dominant (P = 0.001) hip joint in 30 degrees of abduction; but did not have any significant effect on positioning sensation of dominant (P = 0.434) and non-dominant (P = 0.703) hip flexion in 30 degrees, dominant (P = 0.148) and non-dominant (P = 0.204) knee flexion in 30 degrees, and dominant (P = 0.417) and non-dominant (P = 0.439) knee flexion in 60 degrees.Conclusion: According to the obtained results, erector spinae muscle fatigue in Karate athletes is likely to cause disruption in their trunk and hip position sensations, which can be the probable cause of lower-limbs injury and instability, particularly in the hips. Erector spinae muscle fatigue, however, may have no significant effect on knee position sensation or the injury potential of this joint.


  1. Rahimi M, Halabchi F, Ghasemi G, Zolaktaf V. Prevalence of karate injuries in professional karate kai in Isfahan. Ann Mil Health Sci Res 2009; 7(3): 201-7. [In Persian].
  2. Gribble PA, Tucker WS, White PA. Time-of-day influences on static and dynamic postural control. J Athl Train 2007; 42(1): 35-41.
  3. Cote KP, Brunet ME, Gansneder BM, Shultz SJ. Effects of pronated and supinated foot postures on static and dynamic postural stability. J Athl Train 2005; 40(1): 41-6.
  4. Winter DA, Patla AE, Frank JS. Assessment of balance control in humans. Med Prog Technol 1990; 16(1-2): 31-51.
  5. Shumway-Cook A, Woollacott MH. Nomal postural control In: Shumway-Cook A, Woollacott MH, editors. Motor control: Theory and practical applications. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2001. p. 136-91.
  6. Rinaldi NM, Polastri PF, Barela JA. Age-related changes in postural control sensory reweighting. Neurosci Lett 2009; 467(3): 225-9.
  7. Riemann BL, Caggiano NA, Lephart SM. Examination of a clinical method of assessing postural control during a functional performance task. J Sport Rehabil 1999; 8(3): 171-83.
  8. Hughes T, Rochester P. The effects of proprioceptive exercise and taping on proprioception in subjects with functional ankle instability: A review of the literature. Phys Ther Sport 2008; 9(3): 136-47.
  9. Neisi K, Ebrahimi A, Goharpey Sh. Survey effect of start degree and aim degree on knee joint position sense assessment in healthy men. J Semnan Univ Medl Sci. 2006: 5(3): 621-27.
  10. Greig M, Walker-Johnson C. The influence of soccer-specific fatigue on functional stability. Physical Therapy in Sport 2007; 8(4): 185-90.
  11. Yaggie JA, McGregor SJ. Effects of isokinetic ankle fatigue on the maintenance of balance and postural limits. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002; 83(2): 224-8.
  12. Gribble PA, Hertel J. Effect of lower-extremity muscle fatigue on postural control. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85(4): 589-92.
  13. Salavati M, Moghadam M, Ebrahimi I, Arab AM. Changes in postural stability with fatigue of lower extremity frontal and sagittal plane movers. Gait Posture 2007; 26(2): 214-8.
  14. Hiemstra LA, Lo IK, Fowler PJ. Effect of fatigue on knee proprioception: implications for dynamic stabilization. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2001; 31(10): 598-605.
  15. Blackburn T, Guskiewicz KM, Petschauer MA, Prentice WE. Balance and joint stability: The relative contributions of proprioception and muscular strength. J Sport Rehabil 2000; 9(4): 315-28.
  16. Jackson ND, Gutierrez GM, Kaminski T. The effect of fatigue and habituation on the stretch reflex of the ankle musculature. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2009; 19(1): 75-84.
  17. Park SE, Moon SH. Effects of trunk stability exercise using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with changes in chair height on the gait of patients who had a stroke. J Phys Ther Sci 2016; 28(7): 2014-8.
  18. Hodges PW, Richardson CA. Contraction of the abdominal muscles associated with movement of the lower limb. Phys Ther 1997; 77(2): 132-42.
  19. Stickler L, Finley M, Gulgin H. Relationship between hip and core strength and frontal plane alignment during a single leg squat. Phys Ther Sport 2015; 16(1): 66-71.
  20. Coorevits P, Danneels L, Cambier D, Ramon H, Vanderstraeten G. Assessment of the validity of the Biering-Sorensen test for measuring back muscle fatigue based on EMG median frequency characteristics of back and hip muscles. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2008; 18(6): 997-1005.
  21. de Santana LM, do Nascimento PRC, Lima TdS, Lopes ACT, Araujo AC, de Azevedo FM, et al. Electromyographic analysis of the vertebral extensor muscles during the Biering-Sorensen Test. Motriz: Rev Educ Fis 2014; 20: 112-9.
  22. Destombe C, Lejeune L, Guillodo Y, Roudaut A, Jousse S, Devauchelle V, et al. Incidence and nature of karate injuries. Joint Bone Spine 2006; 73(2): 182-8.
  23. Karren A, Maria C. Injuries associated with martial arts. Sport Med 2000; 35: 308-13.
  24. Kamayestani AA. Investigation of common sports injury rate among male karatekas of Azarbaijan Sharghi [BSc Thesis]. Tabriz, Iran: University of Tabriz; 2005. [In Persian].
  25. Harkins KM, Mattacola CG, Uhl TL, Malone TR, McCrory JL. Effects of 2 ankle fatigue models on the duration of postural stability dysfunction. J Athl Train 2005; 40(3): 191-4.
  26. Vuillerme N, Anziani B, Rougier P. Trunk extensor muscles fatigue affects undisturbed postural control in young healthy adults. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2007; 22(5): 489-94.
  27. Taheri Asghari A, Saraf Zadeh J, Mansoor Sobhani S, Talebian S, Keyhani MR. Effects of ankle muscles fatigue on dynamic postural stability in healthy women athlete. J Mod Rehabil 2010; 3(3-4): 1-9.
  28. Shafipour A, Shojaedin SS. The comparison of knee joint position sense in soccer player, volleyball player and non-athlete men. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci. 2014; 16(3): 33-42. [In Persian].
  29. Shenouda MMSS, Draz AH, Shendy W. Relationship between proprioception and trunk muscles strength at different Trunk velocities in patients with lumbar disc prolapse. Bull Fac Ph Th Cairo Univ 2011; 16(1): 135-41.
  30. Fouladi R, Nasseri N, Rajabi R, Geranmayeh M. Joint position sense of the knee in healthy female athletes across the menstrual cycle. Koomesh 2010; 12(1): 31-8. [In Persian].
  31. Berg K, Wood-Dauphinee S, Williams JI. The Balance Scale: reliability assessment with elderly residents and patients with an acute stroke. Scand J Rehabil Med 1995; 27(1): 27-36.
  32. Petrella RJ, Lattanzio PJ, Nelson MG. Effect of age and activity on knee joint proprioception. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1997; 76(3): 235-41.
  33. Baker V, Bennell K, Stillman B, Cowan S, Crossley K. Abnormal knee joint position sense in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome. J Orthop Res 2002; 20(2): 208-14.
  34. Alizadeh MH, Zarei M, Samadi H. Comparison of knee position sense between elite male soccer, futsal and beach soccer players. Journal of Sport Medicine Review 2013; 4(12): 81-96. [In Persian].
  35. Matsuda S, Demura S, Uchiyama M. Centre of pressure sway characteristics during static one-legged stance of athletes from different sports. J Sports Sci 2008; 26(7): 775-9.
  36. Bruniera CA, Rogerio FR, Rodacki AL. Stabilometric response during single-leg stance after lower limb muscle fatigue. Braz J Phys Ther 2013; 17(5): 464-9.
  37. Akuthota V, Nadler SF. Core strengthening. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85(3 Suppl 1): S86-S92.
  38. Johanson E, Brumagne S, Janssens L, Pijnenburg M, Claeys K, Paasuke M. The effect of acute back muscle fatigue on postural control strategy in people with and without recurrent low back pain. Eur Spine J 2011; 20(12): 2152-9.
  39. Delgado G, Coghlin C, Earle K, Holek A, O'Hare K. Trunk extensor muscle fatigue does not affect postural control during upright static stance in young-adults and middle-aged adults. WURJ Health and Natural Sciences 2011; 2: 1-7.
  40. Myers JB, Guskiewicz KM, Schneider RA, Prentice WE. Proprioception and neuromuscular control of the shoulder after muscle fatigue. J Athl Train 1999; 34(4): 362-7.
  41. Refshauge KM, Fitzpatrick RC. Perception of movement at the human ankle: Effects of leg position. J Physiol 1995; 488 (Pt 1): 243-8.
  42. Gurney B, Milani J, Pedersen ME. Role of fatigue on proprioception of the ankle. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online 2000; 3(1) [Online]. Available from: URL:
  43. Gandevia SC. Neural control in human muscle fatigue: Changes in muscle afferents, motoneurones and motor cortical drive [corrected]. Acta Physiol Scand 1998; 162(3): 275-83.
  44. Lattanzio PJ, Petrella RJ. Knee proprioception: a review of mechanisms, measurements, and implications of muscular fatigue. Orthopedics 1998; 21(4): 463-70. Willems T, Witvrouw E, Verstuyft J, Vaes P, De Clercq D. Proprioception and muscle strength in subjects with a history of ankle sprains and chronic instability. J Athl Train 2002; 37(4): 487-93.
  45. Nawata K, Teshima R, Morio Y, Hagino H, Enokida M, Yamamoto K. Anterior-posterior knee laxity increased by exercise. Quantitative evaluation of physiologic changes. Acta Orthop Scand 1999; 70(3): 261-4.
  46. Rozzi SL, Lephart SM, Gear WS, Fu FH. Knee joint laxity and neuromuscular characteristics of male and female soccer and basketball players. Am J Sports Med 1999; 27(3): 312-9.
  47. Bigland-Ritchie BR, Furbush FH, Gandevia SC, Thomas CK. Voluntary discharge frequencies of human motoneurons at different muscle lengths. Muscle Nerve 1992; 15(2): 130-7.
  48. Nyland JA, Shapiro R, Stine RL, Horn TS, Ireland ML. Relationship of fatigued run and rapid stop to ground reaction forces, lower extremity kinematics, and muscle activation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1994; 20(3): 132-7.
  49. Forestier N, Teasdale N, Nougier V. Alteration of the position sense at the ankle induced by muscular fatigue in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34(1): 117-22.
  50. Proske U, Wise AK, Gregory JE. The role of muscle receptors in the detection of movements. Prog Neurobiol 2000; 60(1): 85-96.
  51. Bouet V, Gahery Y. Muscular exercise improves knee position sense in humans. Neurosci Lett 2000; 289(2): 143-6.
  52. South M, George KP. The effect of peroneal muscle fatigue on ankle joint position sense. Physical Therapy in Sport 2007; 8(2): 82-7.
  53. Barrett DS, Cobb AG, Bentley G. Joint proprioception in normal, osteoarthritic and replaced knees. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1991; 73(1): 53-6.
  54. Guo LY, Lin CF, Yang CH, Hou YY, Chen SK, Wu WL. Evaluation of internal rotator muscle fatigue on shoulder and scapular proprioception. J Mech Med Biol 2011; 11(3): 663-74.