A Review on the Neuropathological Effects of Basal Nuclei in the Pathogenesis of Stuttering

Document Type : Review Articles


1 PhD Student, Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine AND Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran



The basal nuclei are a group of subcortical structures that act as a cohesive functional unit. These nuclei are situated at the base of the forebrain and are strongly connected with the cerebral cortex and thalamus. The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions, including voluntary motor control, learning, eye movements, cognitive and emotional functions. The basal nuclei include the motor, cognitive, eye movement, and limbic system circuits. The motor circuit contains a cortico-basal cortical pathway. Stuttering is a disorder in speech production with blocks, repetition, prolongation, or cessation of sound. The main cause of stuttering is unknown. Some speech disorders, such as stuttering, may be the result of disturbances in the circuits between the basal nuclei and the language motor area of the cerebral cortex. Due to their association with the cerebral cortex, especially Broca's area and speech motor cortex, the basal ganglia can influence the motor features of speech. In this review article, the possible relation between stuttering and basal nuclei was discussed.