Formant frequency of Persian Vowels in 18-24 years old university students

Document Type : Original Articles




Introduction: This study aimed to investigate first three formants of Persian language among 18-24 years old university students.Material and Methods: In a descriptive and cross-sectional study, 60 students (30 males and 30 females) aged 18-24 years were selected from school of Persian language and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The data were gathered directly by the interviewer; and the Persian vowel producing test was performed on the samples. Then first, second, and third formants of every six vowels were obtained by the Real analysis program of Dr. Speech software and Speech Studio, and their scores were recorded in the table, and investigated finally based on the goals and questions of the study.Results: The greatest mean amount of F1, F2, and F3 were for vowel /æ/ 767 Hz, vowel /i/ 2244 Hz, and vowel /i/ 3129 Hz, respectively; and the least amount was for vowel /i/ 255 Hz, /u/ 734 Hz, and /u/ 2317 Hz, respectively, among the male students.The greatest mean amount of F1, F2, and F3 was for vowel /æ/ 876 Hz, vowel /i/ 2688 Hz, and vowel /i/ 3339 Hz, respectively; the least amount was for vowel /u/ 376 Hz, /u/ 731 Hz, and /u/ 2412 Hz, respectively, among the female students.Conclusion: The vowels /i/ and /u/ are close and the vowels /æ/ and /a/ are open and two vowels /o/ and /e/ are located between these two groups. The vowels /i/, /e/, and /æ/ are anterior and vowels /a/, /o/, and /u/ are posterior. The vowels /i/, /æ/ are expanded and the vowel /e/ is semi-expanded. The vowels /a/ and /u/ are circular and the vowel /o/ is semi-circular.Key words: Formant, Dr. Speech, speech studio, Persian vowels