The Effect of Different Rowing Stroke Rates on Kinematics of Lower Extremity Joints Related to Overuse Injuries in Professional Teenager Rowers: A Cross-Sectional Study

Document Type : Original Articles


1 PhD Student, Department of Biomechanics and Sports Injuries, School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Biomechanics and Sports Injuries, School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Natural Sciences in Kinanthropology, Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic



Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different rates of rowing stroke on kinematics of lower extremity joints related to overuse injuries in professional teenager rowers.Materials and Methods: 15 elite young rowers volunteered to participate in this study. Lower extremity kinematic data were recorded during incremental rowing test on ergometer with seven Vicon cameras at a sampling rate of 200 Hz. Seven rowing cycles were selected from each stroke rate and the kinematic data were compared between different rowing stroke rates using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) method.Results: Increase in rowing rate resulted in significant increase in foot plantarflexion (P = 0.048) and knee (P = 0.018) and hip (P = 0.036) extension during late drive phase. Moreover, hip and knee flexion range of motion (ROM) (P = 0.001) in all recovery phase, and foot dorsiflexion ROM (P = 0.001) in first 70% of recovery phase significantly increased with increase in rowing stroke rate.Conclusion: Increasing rowing rate may increase knee flexion in late recovery phase and increase knee, hip, and ankle extension in late drive phase that may put the knee at the risk of injury.


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  • Receive Date: 01 March 2021
  • Revise Date: 02 June 2022
  • Accept Date: 22 May 2022