The Effect of Verbal and Analogical Learning on the Accuracy and Angular Velocity of Dart-Throwing in Children

Document Type : Original Articles


1 PhD Student, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Alborz Campus, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior and Sport Psychology, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor. Department of Motor Behavior, School of Sport sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran



Introduction: The importance of implicit learning and ways to achieve it in learning motor skills is increasing. However, little research has been carried out on children and the effects of analogy on children’s compressive performance are unclear. This study is performed aiming to compare analogy and verbal learning on accuracy and angular velocity of dart-throwing skills in children.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed using a semi-experimental design in 24 children with a mean age of 11.06 ± 2.2 years. The subjects were selected by the convenience sampling method and randomly divided into three groups: verbal training, analogy, and control. After the dart throw test (10 attempts), the participants underwent 8 rehearsal sessions (including 50 attempts per session). Retention and transfer tests were taken 3 weeks after the last session and 10 attempts were made on the variables of radial error and angular velocity. Data were analyzed using mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA) (3 × 4 in performance and 3 × 3 in angular velocity). α = 0.05 was considered as the significance level.Finding: The results showed that the verbal group had a significant decrease in radial error in the acquisition (P < 0.001), retention (P ≤ 0.003), and transfer (P ≤ 0.025). However, an increase in error was observed in the learning (P ≤ 0.001) and transfer stages (P < 0.001) in the control group, and in the transfer stage in the analogy group (P ≤ 0.038). Moreover, the verbal group had a significant increase in elbow angular velocity (P ≤ 0.005), while in other groups there was no significant difference between the test phases (P < 0.05).Result: It seems that verbal instruction increases the angular velocity, improves accuracy and performance compared to analogy, and is more effective in children’s performance.


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