Comparison of the Effect of Quiet Eye Training and Anticipation Training on the Performance of Hockey Goalkeepers

Document Type : Original Articles


1 PhD Student, Department of Motor Learning and Behavior, International Campus, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Motor Learning and Behavior, International Campus, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran



Introduction: Cognitive-perceptual skills are important for successful performance in many tasks. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of quiet eye training and anticipation training on performance of hockey goalkeepers.Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 10 hockey goalkeepers were selected via purposeful sampling method, and randomly assigned to two equal groups of quiet eye training and anticipation training. The study included pretest, intervention, posttest, and transference stages. Participants in pretest, posttest, and transfer (under-pressure position) stages received 25 hockey strokes at a distance of 9 meters. Intervention was done for three consecutive days (9 blocks of 40 trials, a total of 360 trials), and participants received their training instructions. Data were analyzed using independent t and dependent t tests via SPSS software.Results: Both anticipation training (P = 0.010) and quiet eye training (P < 0.001) had significant effect on the performance of hockey goalkeepers. Moreover, quiet eye training group had better performance compared to anticipation training group in both normal (P = 0.010) and under-pressure (P = 0.010) conditions.Conclusion: Quiet eye training in contrast to anticipation training results in better performance in normal and under-pressure conditions.


  1. Causer J, Williams AM. Improving anticipation and decision making in sport. In: McGarry T, O'Donoghue P, Sampaio J, editors. Routledge handbook of sports performance analysis. London, UK: Routledge; 2013. p. 21-31.
  2. Spittle M, Kremer P, Hamilton J. The effect of screen size on video-based perceptual decision making tasks in sport. Int J Sport Exerc Psychol 2010; 8(4): 360-72.
  3. Edwards WH. Motor learning and control: From theory to practice. 1st ed. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning; 2010.
  4. Williams AM, Ford PR, Eccles DW, Ward P. Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport and its acquisition: Implications for applied cognitive psychology. Appl Cognit Psychol 2011; 25(3): 432-42.
  5. Sarpeshkar V, Mann DL, Spratford W, Abernethy B. The influence of ball-swing on the timing and coordination of a natural interceptive task. Hum Mov Sci 2017; 54: 82-100.
  6. Kellman PJ. Adaptive and perceptual learning technologies in medical education and training. Mil Med 2013; 178(10 Suppl): 98-106.
  7. Rosalie SM, Muller S. Expertise facilitates the transfer of anticipation skill across domains. Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2014; 67(2): 319-34.
  8. Vickers JN. The quiet eye: Origins, controversies, and future directions. Kinesiol Rev 2016; 5(2): 119-28.
  9. Wilson MR, Causer J, Vickers JN. Aiming for excellence: The quiet eye as a characteristic of expertise. In: Baker J, Farrow D, editors. Routledge handbook of sport expertise. London, UK: Routledge; 2015. p. 22-37.
  10. Causer J, Holmes PS, Williams AM. Quiet eye training in a visuomotor control task. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011; 43(6): 1042-9.
  11. Vine SJ, Moore LJ, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training: the acquisition, refinement and resilient performance of targeting skills. Eur J Sport Sci 2014; 14(Suppl 1): S235-S242.
  12. Moore LJ, Vine SJ, Cooke A, Ring C, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training expedites motor learning and aids performance under heightened anxiety: The roles of response programming and external attention. Psychophysiology 2012; 49(7): 1005-15.
  13. Miles CA, Wood G, Vine SJ, Vickers JN, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training facilitates visuomotor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. Res Dev Disabil 2015; 40: 31-41.
  14. Corbetta M, Shulman GL. Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain. Nat Rev Neurosci 2002; 3(3): 201-15.
  15. McMorris T. Acquisition and Performance of Sports Skills. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Willey; 2014. p. 92-95.
  16. Hagemann N, Strauss B, Canal-Bruland R. Training perceptual skill by orienting visual attention. J Sport Exerc Psychol 2006; 28(2): 143-58.
  17. Panchuk D, Vickers JN, Hopkins WG. Quiet eye predicts goaltender success in deflected ice hockey shots. Eur J Sport Sci 2017; 17(1): 93-9.
  18. Muller S, Gurisik Y, Hecimovich M, Harbaugh AG, Vallence AM. Individual differences in short-term anticipation training for high-speed interceptive skill. Journal of Motor Learning and Development 2016; 5(1): 160-76.
  19. Loffing F, Hagemann N. Skill differences in visual anticipation of type of throw in team-handball penalties. Psychol Sport Exerc 2014; 15(3): 260-7.
  20. Hodges NJ, Williams AM. Skill acquisition in sport: Research, theory and practice. London, UK: Routledge; 2012. p. 290-1.
  21. Fahimi H, Ghotbi-Varzaneh A, Yazdani M. The relationship between quiet eye and motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder. J Res Rehabil Sci 2016; 12(6): 355-61. [In Persian].
  22. Harris DJ, Vine SJ, Wilson MR. Flow and quiet eye: the role of attentional control in flow experience. Cogn Process 2017; 18(3): 343-7.
  23. Moore LJ, Vine SJ, Freeman P, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training promotes challenge appraisals and aids performance under elevated anxiety. Int J Sport Exerc Psychol 2013; 11(2): 169-83.
  24. Piras A, Pierantozzi E, Squatrito S. Visual search strategy in judo fighters during the execution of the first grip. Int J Sports Sci Coach 2014; 9(1): 185-98.
  25. Wood G, Wilson MR. Quiet-eye training for soccer penalty kicks. Cogn Process 2011; 12(3): 257-66.
  26. Mann DT, Coombes SA, Mousseau MB, Janelle CM. Quiet eye and the Bereitschaftspotential: visuomotor mechanisms of expert motor performance. Cogn Process 2011; 12(3): 223-34.
  27. Alder D, Ford PR, Causer J, Williams AM. The coupling between gaze behavior and opponent kinematics during anticipation of badminton shots. Hum Mov Sci 2014; 37: 167-79.