The Comparison of the Pattern and Activity of Selected Muscles of the Lower Extremity in Athletes with Genu Varum and Healthy Athletes during Running: A Case-Control Study

Document Type : Original Articles


1 MSc Student, Department of Sport Biomechanics, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Sport Biomechanics, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Biomechanics, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran



Introduction: Malalignment of the lower extremity, especially at the knee, can lead to injury due to its impact on muscle activity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the pattern and activity of selected muscles of the lower extremity in athletes with genu varum and healthy athletes during running.Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 30 male athletes (two groups of genu varum and healthy) with the age range of 20-25 years. The amount and the time of onset of muscle activity were calculated using electromyography (EMG). To evaluate differences between and within groups, MANOVA and paired samples t-test were utilized, respectively, at the 0.05 level of significance. Data were analyzed in MATLAB and SPSS software.Results: The results showed that the gluteus medius muscle in the athletes with genu varum had significantly higher levels of activity compared to the control group in the dominant (P = 0.032) and non-dominant limbs (P = 0.039). However, the rectus femoris and medial gastrocnemius muscles’ activity was not significantly different between the two groups (P > 0.050). In addition, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of onset of muscle activity (P > 0.050). Moreover, no significant difference was observed between dominant and non-dominant limbs in the amount and onset of muscle activity (P > 0.050).Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the gluteus medius muscle had greater activity in subjects with genu varum deformity than healthy subjects. This increase in activity can be accompanied with increase in compressive forces and articular loads which can cause osteoarthritis in the long run.


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