Presentation of “Sport for All” Model at Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences) A Qualitative Study)

Document Type : Original Articles


1 PhD Student in Sports Management, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

2 Associate Professor, School of Physical Education and Sport Ssciences, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Behbahan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Behbahan, Iran



Introduction: The stressors of the studentship may negatively change the health and quality of life (QOL) of students. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the stressors and their consequences as well as to adopt appropriate strategies for improving them. Access to public sport facilities, as an imperative factor in students’ leisure time, plays an essential role in their physical and mental health that ultimately improves their QOL. The purpose of this study is to present the model of “sport for all” for Iranian students of universities of medical sciences.Materials and Methods: This study was carried out based on the systematic grounded theory. The study participants were sports management experts, sports pioneers and faculty members who were included through purposive snowballing sampling method for semi-structured interviews. The interviews continued until theoretical saturation. At the same time as the data were collected, analysis was performed using the Strauss and Corbin method. The validity of the findings was determined by member matching methods, peer review, and experimental interviews.Results: The results indicated 450 initial conceptual propositions with 14 categories and 41 concepts in the form of six dimensions of the paradigmatic model. The model included causal factors, main phenomenon, strategy, underlying features, environmental conditions, and outcomes with respectively 1, 1, 2, 5, 4, and 1 categories  that constructed the paradigm of “sport for all” model for Iranian students of universities of medical sciencesConclusion: Improving attitude and awareness, motivation, interest, and increased vitality and joy leads to the increased participation of studenst in the “sport for all” activities and improve the health and wellbeing among them.


  1. Pender NJ, Murdaugh CL, Parsons MA. Health promotion in nursing practice. London, UK: Pearson; 2011.
  2. Al-Qahtani MF. Comparison of health-promoting lifestyle behaviours between female students majoring in healthcare and non-healthcare fields in KSA. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences 2019; 14(6): 508-14.
  3. World Health Organization. The second decade: Improving adolescent health and development. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2001.
  4. AlBuhairan FS, Tamim H, Al Dubayee M, AlDhukair S, Al Shehri S, Tamimi W, et al. Time for an adolescent health surveillance system in Saudi Arabia: Findings from "Jeeluna". J Adolesc Health 2015; 57(3): 263-9.
  5. Chouhan S. Analysing health promoting life styles of medical students in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India by HPLP-II. Int J Community Med Public Health 2017; 4(1): 195-9.
  6. Kidokoro T, Kohmura Y, Fuku N, Someya Y, Suzuki K. Secular trends in the grip strength and body mass index of sport university students between 1973 and 2016: J-Fit+study. J Exerc Sci Fit 2020; 18(1): 21-30.
  7. Asefi AA, Asadi Dastjerdi h. An investigating of developmental barriers of sport for all in state universities of tehran city and presenting developing strategies. Journal of Sport Management 2017; 8(6): 823-44. [In Persian].
  8. Farzad G, Memarzadeh MS, Alavi s. Determining the contribution and role of the executive organizations in development of community sport. Applied Research in Sport Management 2019; 8(1): 11-32. [In Persian].
  9. Goudarzi M, Eslami A, Alidousti A. Identifying factors affecting the development of sport for all via the Islamic Republic of Iran broadcasting. Applied Research of Sport Management 2016; 4(3): 11-27. [In Persian].
  10. Shateri R, Mirdehghan A. Effective Factors and Obstacles On the Sport Development Place in Students’ Lifestyle. Irainian Journal of the Knowledge Studies in the Islamic University 2019; 23(79): 229-46. [In Persian].
  11. Tofighi A, Babaei S, Eloon Kashkuli F, Babaei R. The relationship between the amount of physical activity and general health in Urmia Medical University students. J Urmia Nurs Midwifery Fac 2014; 12(3):166-72. [In Persian].
  12. Azizi B, Jalali M, Khabiri M. A survey of the attitudes of students living in University of Tehran dormitories towards sport for all. Sport Management 2011; 8(8): 75-91. [In Persian].
  13. Hoseini SE, Poor Kiani M, Jami Alahmadi A, Afroozeh A. Determine affecting factors on increasing students’ physical activity participation. Research on Educational Sport 2017; 5(12): 97-114. [In Persian].
  14. Bahrami S, Molakhili H, Baghbani F, Ashrafi Rizi H, Mojiri S. Relationship between non-school study and mental health of students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Iran J Med Educ 2012; 11(9): 1241-7. [In Persian].
  15. Adham D, Salem Safi P, Amiri M, Dadkhah B, Mohammadi M, Mozaffari N, et al. The survey of mental health status in Ardabil University of Medical Sciences students in 2007-2008. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci 2008; 8(3): 229-34. [In Persian].
  16. Rafiei M, Mosavipour S, Aghanajafi M. Happiness, mental health, and their relationship among the students at Arak University of Medical Sciences in 2010. J Arak Uni Med Sci. 2012; 15(3): 15-25. [In Persian].
  17. Mehdizadeh R, Andam R. Developing strategies of "Sport for All" in Iran Universities. Sport Management Review 2014; 6(22): 15-38.
  18. Naim Z, Anwar K, Rahman A, Zuliani N. Physical inactivity among medical and non-medical students: A cross sectional study. International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences 2016; 3(5): 48-58.
  19. Ansari T, Alghamdi T, Alzahrani M, Alfhaid F, Sami W, Aldahash BA, et al. Risky health behaviors among students in Majmaah University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Family Community Med 2016; 23(3): 133-9.
  20. Mohammadpour A. Qualitative data analysis: Models and procedures. Iranian Journal of Anthropology 2009; 2(10); 127-60. [In Persian].
  21. Danaeifard H, Emami SM. Strategies of qualitative research: a reflection on grounded theory. Strategic Management Thought 2007; 1(2): 69-97. [In Persian].
  22. Corbin J, Strauss A. Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications; 2014.
  23. Glaser BG. The grounded theory perspective III: Theoretical coding. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press; 2005.
  24. Pourranjbar M, Khodadadi MR, Ghorbanzadeh B, Alamikoshki M. The correlation facilitating and inhibiting factors on participation in sports activities of female students in Kerman University of Medical Sciences. J Health Promot Manag 2016; 5(3): 60-8. [In Persian].
  25. Hefzollesan M, Yadollahzadeh R. Determination of factors influencing the behavioral level of sport for all development. Sport Management Review 2018; 9(46): 51-68. [In Persian].
  26. Mohammad E, Marjan S, Mojtaba A, Hashem K. Designing the model of sport for all in Iran. Sport Management Review 2015; 6(27): 87-108. [In Persian].
  27. Shabani A, Ghafouri F, Honari H. A Study on policies and strategies of sport for all in comprehensive sport plan of Iran. Sport Management Review 2015; 6(27): 15-30. [In Persian].
  28. Araghi M, Kashef M. Challenges and strategies facing the development of sport for all in Iran. Journal of Sport Management 2015; 6(4): 643-55. [In Persian].
  29. Sameenia M, Paymanizad H, Javadipour M. The Pathology of strategic of sport for all in Iran and provide development solutions based on SWOT model. Sport Management Studies 2013; 5(20): 221-8. [In Persian].
  30. Boroujeny I, Ghorbani M, Kouzechian H, Ehsani M. Identification of the development of the culture of sport for all in Iran. Journal of Sport Management 2018; 10(4): 723-38. [In Persian].
  31. Javadipour M, Rahbari S. Pathology of the policy-making process in sport for all in Iran. Ann Appl Sport Sci 2018; 6(3): 61-72.
  • Receive Date: 04 February 2020
  • Revise Date: 02 June 2022
  • Accept Date: 22 May 2022