The Effect of Implicit and Explicit Learning of Bimanual Coordination on Debilitating Behaviours in Autism

Document Type : Original Articles


1 PhD Student, Department of Sport Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences, School of Sport Sciences and Health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Sport Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences, School of Sport Sciences and Health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 General Practitioner, Gonbad Kavus Health Center, Gonbad Kavus, Iran



Introduction: Disabling behaviors of autism are a prominent factor in differences with normal individuals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of implicit and explicit learning of bimanual coordination on disabling social, communicative, and motor behaviors in autism.Materials and Methods: This was semi-experimental research. 24 patients with autism and with an average age of 10 ± 3 years were divided into three equal groups of implicit learning, explicit learning, and control, with the help of pretest Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (SSRQ). The training groups performed bimanual coordination exercises for six days; the implicit learning group performed low-error learning and the explicit learning group performed full-error learning. Then, all of the subjects were re-measured using SSRQ. On the sixth day, the test was taken into account. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).Results: One-way ANOVA showed a significant difference between the implicit learning group with the explicit learning and control groups (P = 0.014). This was significant for social interaction index (P = 0.019) and behavioral disorders (P = 0.002), too. However, there was no significant difference in speech disorder index (P = 0.910).Conclusion: It is suggested that error-less learning be used to educate people with high-performance autism. In addition to benefiting from implicit learning features, we can improve behavioral and social performance.


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