The Role of Visual Search Behavior and the Verbal Report in Anticipation Skill of Skilled and None-Skilled Badminton Players in Smash Hits

Document Type : Original Articles


1 PhD Student, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Campus Kish, University of Tehran, Kish, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Physical Education Research Institute and Sports Sciences, Tehran, Iran



Introduction: The importance and prerequisite of anticipation in success is not overlooked in many sports skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of anticipation skills, visual search behavior, and verbal reports of skilled and non-skilled badminton's players in smash hits.Materials and Methods: The participants in this study were 22 women aged 20-30 years divided into two groups of skilled (n = 10) and non-skilled (n = 12). Participants viewed 18 video clips from smash hits in different positions and anticipated the landing in less than 3 seconds. Visual Search Behavior (number, duration, and position of fixation) of skilled and non-skilled players was surveyed using the Pupil Model Vision Detector that recorded a spot of gaze at 60 HZ (60 frames per second). After completing the test, using the questionnaire, they recorded the verbal reports of the participants in order to compare them with the visual search results. To compare the data, independent t and Friedman’s tests were used.Results: There was not a significant difference in anticipation accuracy between the two groups. In the study of visual search behavior, there was a significant difference between the two groups in the number (P = 0.010) and duration (P = 0.005) of fixations in the position of rockets. However, there was no significant difference regarding the number and duration of fixations on the position of the wrists, balls, and legs, as well as the other positions. The results of the verbal report indicated that the focus of the attention of skilled players on anticipation skills was the position of the rocket.Conclusion: Generally, in the case of anticipation skills, it can be said that skilled players spent more time looking for rocket position. Using these results in the trial of non-skilled individuals can be useful in promotion of correct anticipation, and facilitating the process of learning skills.


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