The Prevalence and Likely Causes of Injuries in Amateur Greco-Roman Wrestlers

Document Type : Original Articles

Authors

1 Department of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercise, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercise, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

10.22122/jrrs.v14i3.3295

Abstract

Introduction: Wrestling is a collision and traumatic sport with the highest incidence and severity of injury in the tournament. Therefore, recognizing the likely causes of injury is important. In this prospective study, we investigated the prevalence rate and likely causes of injuries in amateur Greco-Roman wrestlers in the tournament.Materials and Methods: In a Student Olympiad tournament, all matches among 102 Greco-Roman wrestlers were observed, and all injuries were recorded. The researcher himself closely observed all matches, and registered all injuries by the side of wrestling mat. Exact position, type, and severity of every injury were recorded after the confirmation of the medical supervisors of the event. Data on “Preparation Process” before the tournament were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. Questionnaires were filled out through face-to-face interview. Injured and non-injured wrestlers were compared using independent Student’s t at the significant level of less than 0.050.Results: The rate of acute and subacute injuries was 2 and 27 percent, respectively. The injury rate of upper extremities, trunk and spinal column, head and face, and lower extremities was 49, 21, 18, and 12 percent, respectively. Sprain (39%) had the highest rate of occurrence. Compared to non-injured, injured wrestlers had less regular practice (P = 0.001), physical fitness (P = 0.031), and sleep (P < 0.001).Conclusion: We recommend amateur Greco-Roman wrestlers to have better sleep and more regular training, and to improve their physical fitness. We also suggest them to have correct standing and sitting core positions, to modify their defending guard, and to use finger tapes to prevent being injured.

Keywords

  1. Noorbakhsh N. Wrestling. 12th ed. Tehran, Iran: Publishing Educational Books in Iran; 2013. p. 6-9. [In Persian].
  2. Ansari S. The prevalence, causes and consequences of physical injuries among youth elite Greco-Roman wrestler [MSc Thesis]. Isfahan, Iran: University of Isfahan; 2000. [In Persian].
  3. Agel J, Ransone J, Dick R, Oppliger R, Marshall SW. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate men's wrestling injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988-1989 through 2003-2004. J Athl Train 2007; 42(2): 303-10.
  4. Beachy G, Akau CK, Martinson M, Olderr TF. High school sports injuries. A longitudinal study at Punahou School: 1988 to 1996. Am J Sports Med 1997; 25(5): 675-81.
  5. Yard EE, Comstock RD. A comparison of pediatric freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling injuries sustained during a 2006 US national tournament. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2008; 18(4): 491-7.
  6. Kersey RD, Rowan L. Injury account during the 1980 NCAA wrestling championships. Am J Sports Med 1983; 11(3): 147-51.
  7. Powell JW, Barber-Foss KD. Injury patterns in selected high school sports: a review of the 1995-1997 seasons. J Athl Train 1999; 34(3): 277-84.
  8. Rechel JA, Yard EE, Comstock RD. An epidemiologic comparison of high school sports injuries sustained in practice and competition. J Athl Train 2008; 43(2): 197-204.
  9. Boden BP, Lin W, Young M, Mueller FO. Catastrophic injuries in wrestlers. Am J Sports Med 2002; 30(6): 791-5.
  10. Baher R, lars E. Sport injury prevention. Trans. Saheb-Alzmani M, Rahnema N, Mohammadi H. 1st ed. Tehran, Iran: Institute of Physical Education and Sport Sciences; 2012. p. 28-35. [In Persian].
  11. Ghasemian J, Nikseresht A, Gaedi H, Pourfazeli B, Afrouzeh M. Studying the prevalence, types and causes of injuries in elite collegiate wrestlers. Unique J Pharm Biol Sci 2014; 2(2): 79-84.
  12. Kordi R, Ziaee V, Rostami M, Wallace WA. Sports injuries and health problems among wrestlers in Tehran. J Pak Med Assoc 2012; 62(3): 204-8.
  13. Pasque CB, Hewett TE. A prospective study of high school wrestling injuries. Am J Sports Med 2000; 28(4): 509-15.
  14. Lorish TR, Rizzo TD, Ilstrup DM, Scott SG. Injuries in adolescent and preadolescent boys at two large wrestling tournaments. Am J Sports Med 1992; 20(2): 199-202.
  15. Fuller CW, Ekstrand J, Junge A, Andersen TE, Bahr R, Dvorak J, et al. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures in studies of football (soccer) injuries. Clin J Sport Med 2006; 16(2): 97-106.
  16. Granhed H, Morelli B. Low back pain among retired wrestlers and heavyweight lifters. Am J Sports Med 1988; 16(5): 530-3.
  17. Bergeron JD, Greene HW, American Coaching Effectiveness Program. Coaches Guide to Sport Injuries. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1989.
  18. Kordi R, Akbarnejad A, Wallace WA. Catastrophic injuries in the Olympic styles of wrestling in Iran. Br J Sports Med 2010; 44(3): 168-74.
  19. Belfani A, Naderi E, Anbarian M, Baglarbagi A. The comprasion of prevalance, type and severity of injury in professional and amateur freestylesGÇÖ wrestlers. J Res Rehabil Sci 2013; 9(4): 609-17. [In Persian].
  20. Akbarnezhad A. Study of prevalence and causes of physical injuries on wrestlers at national level (Free style). HarakaT 2000; 6: 121-35. [In Persian].
  21. Nokhodchi N, Moavenafshari M. The relationship between anthropometric and physical fitness factors and sport injuries among Irans National Team of Youth Freestyle Wrestling. Iranian Journal of Health and Physical Activity 2013; 4(2): 56-62.
  22. Pakravan M, Sahebal Zamani M, Ghahreman Tabrizi K. Prevalence and causes of injuries in physical education students. Journal of Sport Medicine 2009; 1(2): 81-174. [In Persian].
  23. Emery CA, Meeuwisse WH, McAllister JR. Survey of sport participation and sport injury in Calgary and area high schools. Clin J Sport Med 2006; 16(1): 20-6.
  24. Strauss RH, Lanese RR. Injuries among wrestlers in school and college tournaments. JAMA 1982; 248(16): 2016-9.
  25. Estwanik JJ, Bergfeld J, Canty T. Report of injuries sustained during the United States Olympic wrestling trials. Am J Sports Med 1978; 6(6): 335-40.
  26. Wroble RR, Mysnyk MC, Foster DT, Albright JP. Patterns of knee injuries in wrestling: a six year study. Am J Sports Med 1986; 14(1): 55-66.
  27. McGuine TA. Injury frequency during a one-day collegiate wrestling tournament. J Athl Train 1989; 24(3):227–9.
  28. Zakani A, Shoja Aldin SSAD. The study of the relationship between prevalence of sport injuries and some injury causing factors among college student free-style top wrestlers of Iran. Research on Sport Science 2006; 3(9): 87-104. [In Persian].
  29. Yard EE, Collins CL, Dick RW, Comstock RD. An epidemiologic comparison of high school and college wrestling injuries. Am J Sports Med 2008; 36(1): 57-64.
  30. Kroshus E, Utter AC, Pierpoint LA, Currie DW, Knowles SB, Wasserman EB, et al. The first decade of web-based sports injury surveillance: descriptive epidemiology of injuries in us high school boys' wrestling (2005-2006 through 2013-2014) and national collegiate athletic association men's wrestling (2004-2005 Through 2013-2014). J Athl Train 2018; 53(12): 1143-55.
  31. Agarwal S, Mann E. Knee Injuries in Wrestlers: A Prospective Study from the Indian Subcontinent. Asian J Sports Med 2016; 7(4): e35000.
  32. Shadgan B, Feldman BJ, Jafari S. Wrestling injuries during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Am J Sports Med 2010; 38(9): 1870-6.
  33. Lin ZP, Chen YH, Chia F, Wu HJ, Lan LW, Lin JG. Episodes of injuries and frequent usage of traditional Chinese medicine for Taiwanese elite wrestling athletes. Am J Chin Med 2011; 39(2): 233-41.
  34. Park KJ, Lee JH, Kim HC. Injuries in male and female elite Korean wrestling athletes: a 10-year epidemiological study. Br J Sports Med 2019; 53(7): 430-5.
  35. Hatamzadeh AM. Prevalence and causes of injuries in freestyle wrestlers participating in Student's Olympiad [MSc Thesis]. Isfahan, Iran: University of Isfahan; 2006. [In Persian].
  36. Shojaedin SS. Sport Injuries. 1st ed. Tehran, Iran: Nursi Poblications; 2008. p.7. [In Persian].
  37. Bayati R, Shamsi Majelan A, Mirzaei B, Barbas I. The effect of 12 weeks of wrestling+ warm-up program on functional movement screen scores in cadet wrestlers. Ann ApplSport Sci 2019; 7(1): 39-47.
  38. Ivarsson A. Psychological predictors of sport injuries among soccer players [MSc Thesis]. Halmstad, Sweden: Halmstad University; 2008.
  39. Hasani Barzi M. Wrestling induced cervical spondylosis. J Qazvin Univ Med Sci 2002; 6(1): 74-8. [In Persian].
  40. McDonald C, Deitch J, Bush C. Early sports specialization in elite wrestlers. Sports Health 2019. [Epub ahead of print].
  41. Ekstrand J, Karlson J, Hodson A. Football medicine. Trans. Alizade MH, Tahmasebi F, Abbasi H. 1st ed. Tehran, Iran: Science and Movement Publications; 2011. p. 35. [In Persian].
  42. Gharakhanlu R, Daneshmandi H, Alizade MH. Prevention and treatment of sports injuries. 6th ed. Tehran, Iran: SAMT Publications; 2010. p. 137-4. [In Persian].
  43. Gotlin RS. Sports injuries guide book. Trans. Mohseni GR, Farshchian M, Ranjbar A, Bagheri R, Ghafari P. 1st ed. Tehran, Iran: Zaim Publications; 2010. p. 18-40. [In Persian].
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Serial Number 3
August 2018
Pages 160-167
  • Receive Date: 28 April 2019
  • Revise Date: 19 April 2024
  • Accept Date: 22 May 2022