The Effect of Quite Eye Training with Self-Control and Variable-Constant Organization on Learning and Performance of Badminton Backhand Low Service in Student Novice Girls

Document Type : Original Articles


1 PhD Student, Department of Motor Behavior and Psychology, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Alborz Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior and Psychology, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran



Introduction: Quiet eye had been introduced as a period of extended gaze fixation in many targeting tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quiet eye training with self-control and constant-variable body organization on performance and learning badminton low backhand service in the student novice girls.Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 19 girl students of physical education in University of Tehran, Iran, were selected using convenience sampling method and randomly divided into two groups of self-control (n = 9) and constant-variable (n = 10). The task intention was badminton backhand low service. In order to measure the accuracy of backhand low service, we used French short serve standard five test, and to record the visual data, Ergonear Eye Tracking test was used. The day after the pretest, participants took part in 3 sections of acquisition (8 blocks with 15 trails, a total of 360 trails), and 48 hours after the acquisition test, the test of retention and transfer was executed. The data were analyzed using Mixed ANOVA test of 2 × 4 at performance and 2 × 3 during the period of the quiet eye at a significance level of P ≥ 0.050.Results: Quiet eye duration showed a significant increase in both groups from pretest to retention (P ≥ 0.001). Therefore, it can be noted that both methods of practice had a positive effect on the quiet eye duration. However, in the accuracy performance, there was no significant different between the groups (P = 0.374) and within the groups (P = 0.890).Conclusion: It seems that the organization of constant-variable and self-control exercises has similar effects on the accuracy and quiet eye duration.


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