Calculating the Center of Mass, and Introducing its Pattern of Changes for Adolescents in Format of Equations

Document Type : Original Articles

Authors

1 PhD, Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, School of Literature, Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics and Mathematics, School of Engineering, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

10.22122/jrrs.v13i6.3063

Abstract

Introduction: The center of mass is one of the most important features of the physical structure of the people, which is used in the balance tasks, screening in order to study the physical illnesses, talent acquisition, and designing safety and training devices. The aim of this study was to determine the center of mass, and investigating its changes in adolescents, to ultimately provide a fundamental, applied, and appropriate model based on the most important physical factors affecting it.Materials and Methods: Among 161134 adolescent students aged 12 to 18 years in Isfahan City, Iran, 384 adolescents were selected through cluster sampling. Height information in lying, standing, and sitting positions, was measured using standard meter, and mass of subjects was determined with a scale, as well as the center of mass with a measurement device based on the torque principles. The most important factors affecting the center of mass were identified using stepwise multivariate regression method, according to the necessary assumptions.Results: Sitting height to stature ratio, stature height, and sitting height were the most important factors predicting the center of mass in adolescents (P < 0.001). The average ratio of height of the center of mass to stature was calculated as 55.41% for adolescents.Conclusion: A model in the form of a formula was presented to estimate the center of mass of adolescents. This is a very good alternative to estimate the center of mass, rather than using hard, time-consuming, and expensive methods.

Keywords

  1. Rahmati S. Comparison of the main anthropometric, biomechanical, physiological, psychological and musculoskeletal parameters in 16-18 years old girls [Thesis]. Tehran, Iran: School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University; 2011. [In Persian].
  2. Oliveira R, Roriz P, Marques MB, Frazao O. Center of gravity estimation using a reaction board instrumented with fiber Bragg gratings. Photonic Sensors 2018; 8(1): 1-6.
  3. Mapelli A, Zago M, Fusini L, Galante D, Colombo A, Sforza C. Validation of a protocol for the estimation of three-dimensional body center of mass kinematics in sport. Gait Posture 2014; 39(1): 460-5.
  4. Letcher R. Biomechanical modeling of the human body for application to wheelchair seating systems [Honors Thesis]. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University; 2016.
  5. Swearingen JJ, Badgley JM, Braden GE, Wallace TF. Determination of centers of gravity of infants. Washington, DC: Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Medicine; 1969.
  6. Clauser CE, McConville JT, Young JW. Weight, Volume, and Center of Mass Segments of the Human Body. J Occup Environ Med 1971; 13(5): 270.
  7. Betker AL, Moussavi Z, Szturm T. Center of mass function approximation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2004; 1: 687-90.
  8. Schepers HM, van Asseldonk EH, Buurke JH, Veltink PH. Ambulatory estimation of center of mass displacement during walking. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2009; 56(4): 1189-95.
  9. Venture G, Ayusawa K, Nakamura Y. Real-time identification and visualization of human segment parameters. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2009; 2009: 3983-6.
  10. Caron O, Faure B, Breniere Y. Estimating the centre of gravity of the body on the basis of the centre of pressure in standing posture. J Biomech 1997; 30(11-12): 1169-71.
  11. Espiau B, Boulic R. On the computation and control of the mass center of articulated chains. Paris, France: French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation; 1998. p. 1-39.
  12. Bonnet V, Gonzalez A, Azevedo-Coste C, Hayashibe M, Cotton S, Fraisse P. Determination of subject specific whole-body centre of mass using the 3D Statically Equivalent Serial Chain. Gait Posture 2015; 41(1): 70-5.
  13. Virmavirta M, Isolehto J. Determining the location of the bodys center of mass for different groups of physically active people. J Biomech 2014; 47(8): 1909-13.
  14. Hamandi F. Design a model for human body to determine the center of gravity. Proceedings of the 1st National Conference for Iraqi Women; 2012; Dec 12-13; Baghdad, Iraq.
  15. Saini M, Kerrigan DC, Thirunarayan MA, Duff-Raffaele M. The vertical displacement of the center of mass during walking: a comparison of four measurement methods. J Biomech Eng 1998; 120(1): 133-9.
  16. Eames MHA, Cosgrove A, Baker R. Comparing methods of estimating the total body centre of mass in three-dimensions in normal and pathological gaits. Hum Mov Sci 1999; 18(5): 637-46.
  17. Sasaki S, Nagano Y, Kaneko S, Imamura S, Koabayshi T, Fukubayashi T. The relationships between the center of mass position and the trunk, hip, and knee kinematics in the sagittal plane: a pilot study on field-based video analysis for female soccer players. J Hum Kinet 2015; 45: 71-80.
  18. Chong R. Approximation of the CoM Estimate. J Exerc Sports Orthop 2014; 1(2): 1-3.
  19. Jaffrey MA. Estimating centre of mass trajectory and subject-specific body segment parameters using optimisation approaches [PhD Thesis]. Footscray, Australia: Victoria University; 2008.
  20. Gonzaez A, Hayashibe M, Fraisse P. Estimation of the center of mass with Kinect and Wii balance board. Proceedings of 2012 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems; 2012 Oct 7-12; Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal.
  21. Pearsall DJ, Reid JG, Livingston LA. Segmental inertial parameters of the human trunk as determined from computed tomography. Ann Biomed Eng 1996; 24(2): 198-210.
  22. Dyson GHG. The mechanics of athletics. 3rd ed. London, UK: University of London Press; 1964.
  23. DePauw KP. Total body mass centroid and segmental mass centroid locations found in Down’s syndrome individuals. Adapt Phys Activ Q 1984; 1(3): 221-9.
  24. Palmer CE. The center of gravity in the developmental period of man. Anatomical Records 1929; 31-42.
  25. Swearingen JJ. Determination of centers of gravity of man. Rep Civ Aeromed Res Inst US 1962; 62(14): 1-37.
  26. Payne VG, Isaacs LD. Human motor development: A lifespan approach. 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011.
  27. Brewer C. Athletic movement skills: Training for sports performance. 1st ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2017. p. 46.
  28. Gabbard C. Lifelong motor development. 6th ed. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings; 2011. p. 109-464.
  29. Gambino S, Mirochnik M, Schechter S. Center of mass of a human. In: Elert G, editors. The physics Factbook [Online]. Available from: URL: https://hypertextbook.com/facts/2006/centerofmass.shtml
  30. Singh AS, Masuku MB. Sampling techniques and determination of sample size in applied statistics research: An overview. Int J Economics Commerce Manag 2014; 2(11): 1-22.
  31. Azar A, Khadivar A. Application of multivariate statistical analysis in management. Tehran, Iran: Negah-e Danesh Publications; 2014. p. 488-73. [In Persian].
  32. Bundak R, Bas F, Furman A, Gunoz H, Darendeliler F, Saka N, et al. Sitting height and sitting height/height ratio references for Turkish children. Eur J Pediatr 2014; 173(7): 861-9.
  33. Xi H, Chen Z, Li W, Wen Y, Zhang H, Xiao Y, et al. Chest circumference and sitting height among children and adolescents from Lhasa, Tibet compared to other high altitude populations. Am J Hum Biol 2016; 28(2): 197-202.
  34. Kargarzadehravri F. 7 reasons for kyphosis. Iransalamat. [Online]. [cited 2012 Sep 20]; Available from: http://www.forum.iransalamat.com [In Persian].
  35. Saadat F. Treatment of Genu Valgum. Momtaznews [Online]. [cited 2018 Nov 9]; Available from: http://www.momtaznews.com [In Persian].
  36. Salamat News. Reasons to add weight during menstruation [Online]. [cited 2016 Sep 8]; Available from: URL: http://www.salamatnews.com/news/190228 [In Prsian].
  37. Taherian A, Shojaei M, Daneshfar A, Sharifdoust M. Introducing a model for determining the center of mass in children aged 6 to 12 in Isfahan. J Sport Biomech 2018; 3(4): 5-15. [In Persian].
  38. Taherian A, Shojaei M, Daneshfar A, Sharifdoust M. A study on the selected anthropomorphic characteristics of girls and boys in childhood and adolescence. J Res Rehabil Sci 2017; 13(3): 162-70. [In Persian].
  • Receive Date: 07 August 2018
  • Revise Date: 15 April 2024
  • Accept Date: 22 May 2022