A Study on the Selected Anthropomorphic Characteristics of Girls and Boys in Childhood and Adolescence

Document Type : Original Articles


1 PhD Student, Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics and Mathematics, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran



Introduction: The structural body features provide physicians, health care professionals, educators, and parents with important information like natural body development, physical activities in accordance through body size, sport talent identification, and prediction of certain diseases such as cardiovascular and cancer problems. This study was run to determine and compare the features of average body stature as height at both lying and standing positions, sitting height, and sitting height to standing height ratio.Materials and methods: Among 315,987 elementary to high school students in Isfahan City, Iran, 768 children and adolescents were selected through cluster sampling, and were categorized in four groups, according to age and gender. Postural variables were measured using a standard meter. To describe and analyze the data, one-way ANOVA, Levene, and Post Hoc tests were run at a significance level of less than 0.05.Results: Although lying height was higher than standing height, their increasing trends remained the same. Although the boys’ sitting height was higher than the girls’, the sitting height to standing height ratio of the boys was lower than girls. Adolescent girls and boys had the most and the least sitting height to standing height ratio, respectively. Sitting height to standing height ratio was different in each category (P < 0.001 for all).Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the mean lying height, standing height, and sitting height between boy and girl children. As to the sitting height to standing height ratio, girl adolescent with both boy and girl children were at the same level, and boy adolescent were on another. The findings have correspond to standards of Centers Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) for height.


  1. Malina R, Bouchard C, Bar-Or O, Taylor A. Human growth and development custom eBook: University of Calgary. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2016. p. 14-70.
  2. Bundak R, Bas F, Furman A, Gunoz H, Darendeliler F, Saka N, et al. Sitting height and sitting height/height ratio references for Turkish children. Eur J Pediatr 2014; 173(7): 861-9.
  3. Xi H, Chen Z, Li W, Wen Y, Zhang H, Xiao Y, et al. Chest circumference and sitting height among children and adolescents from Lhasa, Tibet compared to other high altitude populations. Am J Hum Biol 2016; 28(2): 197-202.
  4. Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Kang J, Falvo MJ, Faigenbaum AD. Effect of protein intake on strength, body composition and endocrine changes in strength/power athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2006; 3: 12-8.
  5. Louer AL, Simon DN, Switkowski KM, Rifas-Shiman SL, Gillman MW, Oken E. Assessment of child anthropometry in a large epidemiologic study. J Vis Exp 2017; (120): 1-11.
  6. Stini W. Perspective in anthropometry. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetic: 1989. p. 5-23.
  7. Haywood K, Roberton M, Getchell N. Advanced analysis of motor development. Champion, IL: Human Kinetics; 2012. p. 77-97.
  8. Rahmati S. Comparison of the main anthropometric, biomechanical, physiological, psychological and musculoskeletal nanoinductors of girls aged 16-18 years. [MSc Thesis]. School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Tarbiat Moalem University; 2011. [Persian].
  9. Sawada N, Wark PA, Merritt MA, Tsugane S, Ward HA, Rinaldi S, et al. The association between adult attained height and sitting height with mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). PLoS One 2017; 12(3): e0173117.
  10. Burton RF. Sitting height as a better predictor of body mass than total height and (body mass)/(sitting height)(3) as an index of build. Ann Hum Biol 2015; 42(3): 210-4.
  11. Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people: individual participant meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol 2012; 41(5): 1419-33.
  12. Wang N, Zhang X, Xiang YB, Yang G, Li HL, Gao J, et al. Associations of adult height and its components with mortality: a report from cohort studies of 135,000 Chinese women and men. Int J Epidemiol 2011; 40(6): 1715-26.
  13. Habibi E, Hajsalehi E. Anthropometric assessment for designing primary school classroom desk and bench size. J Health Syst Res 2010; 6(2): 186-93. [In Persian].
  14. Bourgois J, Claessens AL, Vrijens J, Philippaerts R, Van RB, Thomis M, et al. Anthropometric characteristics of elite male junior rowers. Br J Sports Med 2000; 34(3): 213-6.
  15. Kargarzadehravri F. Seven reasons for kyphosis. Iransalamat. [Online]. [cited 2012 Sep 20]. Available from: URL: http://www.forum.iransalamat.com
  16. Saadat F. Treatment of Genu Valgum. Momtaznews. [Online]. [cited 2018 Nov 9]. Available from: URL: http://www.momtaznews.com
  17. Singh AS, Masuku MB. Sampling techniques and determination of sample size in applied statistics research: An overview. Int J Economics Commerce Manag 2014; 2(11): 1-22.
  18. Department of Family Health and Population, Vice-chancellery for health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Measuring children's height. Isfahan. [Online]. [cited 2014 Mar 3]. Available from: URL: http://phc.mui.ac.ir/fa/content/%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%B2%D9%87-%DA%AF%DB%8C%D8%B1%DB%8C-%D9%82%D8%AF-%DA%A9%D9%88%D8%AF%DA%A9-%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%A7%D8%AF%D9%87
  19. Ilbeigi S, Kaki MG, Fooladian J, Farzaneh H. The relationship between some of anthropometric variables and basic motor abilities in primary school boys aged 9 -11 years of Birjand. JPSBS 2014; 2(3):72-81. [In Persian].
  20. Ross SM. A first course in probability. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson; 2010. p. 388-415.
  21. Saffari F, Jalilolgadr S, Esmailzadehha N, Shariatinejad K. Anthropometric indices in 6-14 year-old girls in Qazvin, Iran. J Isfahan Med Sch 2012; 29(165): 2187-97. [In Persian].
  22. Naghizadeh-Baghi A, Nemati A. A survey of height and weight of Ardebilan boys aged 7-19 years and comparison of them with NCHS reference population and other Studies in Iran. Journal of Science and Technology 2008; 8(1-2): 118-28. [In Persian].
  23. Shidfar F, Montazer M, Amooian M, Azizi H. Height, height and body mass index of 6-15-year-old school girls in Babol, northern iran between 1995 to 2002: A comparison with the the US 2000 centers for disease control and prevention references .Iran J Nutr Sci Food Technol 2007; 2(3): 13-22. [In Persian].
  24. Mozaffari-Khosravi H, NabizadehAsl L, Akbari M, Ahadi Z, Talaei B. Standardized of height, weight and body mass index (BMI) in healthy 6-11-year-old schoolgirls and school boys, Yazd City 2010-2011. Toloo e Behdasht 2014; 13(3): 182-94. [In Persian].
  25. Ebrahimzadeh S. Determining the standards of height and weight for 6-12-year-old kids of mashad and comparing it with international standards. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci 2002; 9(1): 61-9. [In Persian].
  26. Sohrabi A, Chehreh Asa F. Survey on the body weight and height of the students of 7-11 Years in Zahedan. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci 2002; 8(2): 58-64. [In Persian].
  27. Akha O, Teimoorzadeh M, Kashi Z, Kowsarian M. A study on 6-18 years-old girl students about weight and height in Sari. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(67): 50-7. [In Persian].
  28. Ershadi A. Statistical indices and weight and height curves of 6-18-year-old students in Kashan, 1998. J Zanjan Univ Med Sci. 2000; 8(32): 41-52. [In Persian].
  29. Razzaghi Azar M, Moghimi A, Montazer M, Mohammad Sadeghi H, Golnari P, Sedigh N, et al . Evaluation of height, weight and BMI (body mass index) in healthy 6-17-year-old schoolgirls and 6-15-year-old schoolboys, Tehran. Razi J Med Sci 2006; 13(51): 115-30. [In Persian].
  30. Langtree I. Average Height to Weight Chart - Babies to Teenagers [Online]. [cited 2017 Nov 30]; Available from: URL: https://www.disabled-world.com/calculators-charts/height-weight-teens.php
  31. Hattori K, Hirohara T, Satake T. Body proportion chart for evaluating changes in stature, sitting height and leg length in children and adolescents. Ann Hum Biol 2011; 38(5): 556-60.
  32. Zhang YQ, Li H. Reference charts of sitting height, leg length and body proportions for Chinese children aged 0-18 years. Ann Hum Biol 2015; 42(3): 223-30.
  33. Lee TS, Chao T, Tang RB, Hsieh CC, Chen SJ, Ho LT. A longitudinal study of growth patterns in schoolchildren in one Taipei District. II: Sitting height, arm span, body mass index and skinfold thickness. J Chin Med Assoc 2005; 68(1): 16-20.
  34. Payne VG, Isaacs L. Human motor development: A lifespan approach. 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011. p. 173-214.
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Serial Number 3
September 2017
Pages 162-170
  • Receive Date: 10 January 2018
  • Revise Date: 22 March 2023
  • Accept Date: 22 May 2022
  • First Publish Date: 22 May 2022