Impact of Badminton Training Course on Compensating Fundamental Activities in Children with Motor Lag

Document Type : Original Articles


1 PhD Student, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate professor, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran



Introduction: Motor skills in children reach to their maximum degree by going through stages of development; but this progress does not happen automatically. Being unable to reach advanced levels of these movements, decreases childhood activities and prevents reaching the ability of specialized movements. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of badminton skills on compensating fundamental activities for children.Materials and methods: Girls, seven to twelve years old with lagging in movement, were participants of this study. Pretest and posttest were performed at the beginning and end of the study, using Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) method. The experiment group was trained badminton skills for 12 weeks. The control group took the same training after the tests.Results: There was a significantly higher performance in locomotor skills in the experimental group, compared with the control group which did not participated in any training (P = 0.001). Results were the same with the manipulation skills, indicating the impact of training (P = 0.001)Conclusion: It is necessary to pay attention to compensating motor lag in the early ages, whereas training badminton skills has positive impact on this compensation of fundamental activities in children.


  1. Malina RM. Growth. In: Mooren FC, editor. Encyclopedia of exercise medicine in health and disease. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. p. 376-8.
  2. Haywood K, Getchell N. Life span motor development 6th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2014.
  3. Ozmun JC, Gallahue DL. Motor development. In: Winnick J, Porretta D, editors. Adapted physical education and sport. 6th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2017. p. 375.
  4. Hoeboer J, Krijger M, Savelsbergh G, de Vries S. Reliability and validity of an athletic skills track to assess motor competence among 4-12-year-old children. J Sci Med Sport 2017; 20(Suppl 1): e76-e77.
  5. Kranowitz CS. The out-of-sync child: Recognizing and coping with sensory processing disorder. New York, NY: Penguin; 2005.
  6. Fotrousi F, Bagherly J, Ghasemi A. The compensatory impact of mini-basketball skills on the progress of fundamental movements in children. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2012; 46: 5206-10.
  7. Payne VG, Isaacs LD. Human motor development: A lifespan approach. London, UK: Routledge; 2016.
  8. Cliff DP, Okely AD, Smith LM, McKeen K. Relationships between fundamental movement skills and objectively measured physical activity in preschool children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2009; 21(4): 436-49.
  9. Lai SK, Costigan SA, Morgan PJ, Lubans DR, Stodden DF, Salmon J, et al. Do school-based interventions focusing on physical activity, fitness, or fundamental movement skill competency produce a sustained impact in these outcomes in children and adolescents? A systematic review of follow-up studies. Sports Med 2014; 44(1): 67-79.
  10. Fisher A, Reilly JJ, Kelly LA, Montgomery C, Williamson A, Paton JY, et al. Fundamental movement skills and habitual physical activity in young children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37(4): 684-8.
  11. van Beurden E, Zask A, Barnett LM, Dietrich UC. Fundamental movement skills--how do primary school children perform? The 'Move it Groove it' program in rural Australia. J Sci Med Sport 2002; 5(3): 244-52.
  12. Hardy LL, King L, Farrell L, Macniven R, Howlett S. Fundamental movement skills among Australian preschool children. J Sci Med Sport 2010; 13(5): 503-8.
  13. Okely AD, Booth ML, Chey T. Relationships between body composition and fundamental movement skills among children and adolescents. Res Q Exerc Sport 2004; 75(3): 238-47.
  14. Sheikh M, Safania AM, Afshari J. Effect of selected motor skills on motor development of both genders aged 5 and 6 years old. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2011; 15: 1723-5.
  15. Akbari H, Abdoli B, Shafizadehkenari M, Khalaji H, Hajihosseini S, Ziaee V. The effect of traditional games in fundamental motor skill development in 7-9 year old boys. Iran J Pediatr 2009; 19(2): 123-9.
  16. Barnett L, Salmon J, Timperio A, Lubans D, Ridgers N. What is the contribution of motor skill, fitness, and physical activity to children's self-perceptions of motor competence? J Sci Med Sport 2017; 20(Suppl 1): e76.
  17. Luz C, Rodrigues LP, Almeida G, Cordovil R. Development and validation of a model of motor competence in children and adolescents. J Sci Med Sport 2016; 19(7): 568-72.
  18. Phomsoupha M, Laffaye G. The science of badminton: game characteristics, anthropometry, physiology, visual fitness and biomechanics. Sports Med 2015; 45(4): 473-95.
  19. Hastie PA, Sinelnikov OA, Guarino AJ. The development of skill and tactical competencies during a season of badminton. Eur J Sport Sci 2009; 9(3): 133-40.
  20. Cadoret G, Bigras N, Duval S, Lemay L, Tremblay T, Lemire J. The mediating role of cognitive ability on the relationship between motor proficiency and early academic achievement in children. Hum Mov Sci 2018; 57: 149-57.
  21. Barghi Irani Z, Bagiyan KulehmarzMJ, Sharifi F. The social skills training on emotional adjustment increasing, mental health and self-esteem of students with physical–mobile disability. Journal of Applied Counseling 2016; 6(1): 37-58. [In Persian].
  22. Narimani M, Soleymani E, Tabrizchi N. The effect of cognitive rehabilitation on attention maintenance and math achievement in ADHD students. Journal of School Psychology 2015; 4(2): 118-34. [In Persian].
  23. Cohen J. Statistical Power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988.
  24. Ulrich DA. Test of Gross Motor Development. 2nd ed. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed; 2000.
  25. Re AHN, Logan SW, Cattuzzo MT, Henrique RS, Tudela MC, Stodden DF. Comparison of motor competence levels on two assessments across childhood. J Sports Sci 2018; 36(1): 1-6.
  26. Robinson LE. The relationship between perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills in preschool children. Child Care Health Dev 2011; 37(4): 589-96.
  27. Soltanian MA, Farokhi A, Ghorbani R, Jaberi A A, Zarezade M. Evaluation of the reliability and construct validity of test of gross motor development-2 (Ulrich 2) in children of Semnan province. Koomesh 2013; 14(2): 200-6. [In Persian].
  28. Zarezadeh M, Farokhi A, Kazem Nezhad A. Determining reliability and validity of Test of Gross Motor Development (Ulrich, 2000) in 3-11 aged children of Tehran City. Olympic 2011; 18(4): 85-98. [In Persian].
  29. Stodden V, Leisch F, Peng RD. Implementing reproducible research. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2014.
  30. Akinoglu B, Soylu C, Yildirim N, Kocahan T, Coban O, Hasanoglu A. Determination of the relationship between core endurance and sitting balance in wheelchair basketball players: A pilot study. SSTB 2016; (20): 1-12.
  31. Simons J, Daly D, Theodorou F, Caron C, Simons J, Andoniadou E. Validity and reliability of the TGMD-2 in 7-10-year-old Flemish children with intellectual disability. Adapt Phys Activ Q 2008; 25(1): 71-82.
  32. Hodge SR, Murata NM, Porretta DL. Enhancing motor performance through various preparatory activities involving children with learning disabilities. Clin Kinesiol 1999; 53(4): 76-82.
  33. Goodway JD, Branta CF. Influence of a motor skill intervention on fundamental motor skill development of disadvantaged preschool children. Res Q Exerc Sport 2003; 74(1): 36-46.
  34. Daneshvar P, Hariri M, Ghiasvand R, Askari G, Darvishi L, Mashhadi NS, et al. Effect of eight weeks of quercetin supplementation on exercise performance, muscle damage and body muscle in male badminton players. Int J Prev Med 2013; 4(Suppl 1): S53-S57.
  35. Kosari S, Hemayat-Talab R, Arab-Ameri E, Keyhani F. The effect of physical exercise on the development of gross motor skills in children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder. Zahedan J Res Med Sci2013; 15(2): 74-8.
  36. Wang JH-T. A study on gross motor skills of preschool children. Journal of Research in Childhood Education 2004; 19(1): 32-43.
  37. Gallahue DL, Ozmun JC. Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, adults. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill College; 2000.