The Effect of Task Constraints Manipulation on Motor Skill Learning in Children

Document Type : Original Articles


1 PhD Student, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran



Introduction: Acquisition of a skill is affected by constraints. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of task constraints manipulation on motor skill learning in children.Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest design was conducted on 20 primary school children of 10-12 years of age. The subjects were selected through convenience sampling and randomly divided into two groups (training with scaled equipment and standard equipment). Acquisition phase included 5 sessions and each session consisted of 50 trials. Tests were performed with ball sizes of 5, 6, and 7 and ring height of 2.60 m, 2.80 m, and 3.05 m, respectively. Transfer test was performed 10 minutes after the last trial on the last day of acquisition phase using a size 6 ball. The retention test was conducted 24 hours after the last session of acquisition. Data were analyzed using mixed-design ANOVA, and paired and independent t-test at the significance level of 0.05.Results: Significant differences were not found between the 2 groups in terms of accuracy in the retention and transfer tests (P > 0.05). However, the pattern of throwing with scaled equipment was better in the practice group compared to the standard group.Conclusion: According the results of this study, it can be concluded that the use of scaled equipment leads to better learning of movement pattern in children.


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  • Receive Date: 21 July 2017
  • Revise Date: 15 April 2024
  • Accept Date: 22 May 2022