The Effect of Perceptual-Motor Parent-Child Exercises on Executive Functions in Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Document Type : Original Articles

Authors

1 PhD Candidate in Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

2 Associate Professor, School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an important research topic and a common disorder among children in schools, accompanied by the symptoms of aggression, hyperactivity, anxiety, and attention deficit. Considering the side-effects of medications used to treat this disorder, this study endeavored to investigate the effect of perceptual-motor parent-child exercises on executive functions in children with ADHD.Materials and Methods: Participants were 36 children with ADHD with age range of 7-10 years with their mothers, randomly divided into two 18-person groups of mother-and-child-together exercises and mother-child-separately exercises. Regarding the above-mentioned groups, the participants practiced perceptual-motor exercises for 8 weeks, three 45-minute sessions per week. Before and after the intervention, data were collected by the Stroop Word Test (computerized version). Data analysis was done through the covariance test at significance level of 0.05.Results: Higher mean post-test scores in both groups showed that perceptual-motor exercises were effective on executive functions. However, the number of congruent errors (P = 0.006), incongruent errors, congruent correct responses, incongruent correct responses (P = 0.001), congruent reaction time (P = 0.028), incongruent reaction time (P = 0.007), and interference scores were significantly different between the two groups. The mother-and-child-together exercise group performed better than the mother-child-separately exercise group.Conclusion: Findings reveal that perceptual-motor exercises can improve executive functions of children with ADHD, and mother-and-child-together exercises can be an appropriate method for improving executive functions of children with ADHD.

Keywords

Article Title [فارسی]

اثر تمرینات ادراکی- حرکتی والد و کودک بر کارکردهای اجرایی دختران دارای اختلال نقص توجه- بیش‌فعالی: کارآزمایی بالینی تصادفی

Authors [فارسی]

  • مرضیه جعفری 1
  • رخساره بادامی 2
  • زهره مشکاتی 2

1 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اصفهان، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اصفهان، ایران

Abstract [فارسی]

مقدمه: اختلال نقص توجه- بیش‌فعالی (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder یا ADHD)، یکی از مباحث مهم پژوهشی و از جمله اختلالات شایع کودکان در مدارس می‌باشد که با نشانه‌های پرخاشگری، بیش‌فعالی، اضطراب و کمبود توجه همراه است. با توجه به اثرات جانبی داروهایی که برای درمان این اختلال استفاده می‌شود، مطالعه حاضر با هدف تعیین اثر تمرینات ادراکی- حرکتی والد و کودک بر کارکردهای اجرایی کودکان مبتلا به ADHD انجام شد.مواد و روش‌ها: شرکت‌کنندگان این تحقیق را 36 کودک مبتلا به ADHD با دامنه سنی 7 تا 10 سال به همراه مادرانشان تشکیل داد که به صورت تصادفی در دو گروه 18 نفره تمرین مادر و کودک با یکدیگر و گروه تمرین مادر و کودک جدا از یکدیگر قرار گرفتند. شرکت‌کنندگان بر اساس گروه‌بندی ذکر شده، به مدت ۸ هفته و هر هفته سه جلسه 45 دقیقه‌ای، به تمرینات ادراکی- حرکتی پرداختند. قبل و بعد از مداخله، داده‌ها با استفاده از آزمون واژگان Stroop (نوع رایانه‌ای) جمع‌آوری گردید و سپس با استفاده از آزمون کوواریانس در سطح معنی‌داری 05/0 مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت..یافته‌ها: افزایش میانگین نمرات پس‌آزمون هر دو گروه نشان داد که تمرینات ادراکی- حرکتی بر کارکردهای اجرایی تأثیرگذار بود. همچنین، تفاوت معنی‌داری در مقایسه بین‌گروهی تعداد خطای همخوان (006/0 = P)، تعداد خطای ناهمخوان، تعداد پاسخ صحیح همخوان، تعداد پاسخ صحیح ناهمخوان (001/0 = P)، زمان واکنش همخوان (028/0 = P)، زمان واکنش ناهمخوان (007/0 = P) و نمره تداخل (041/0 = P) مشاهده گردید و در گروه تمرینات ادراکی- حرکتی مادر و کودک با یکدیگر بهتر از گروه تمرینات مادر و کودک جدا از یکدیگر بود.نتیجه‎گیری: می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که تمرینات ادراکی- حرکتی، باعث افزایش کارکردهای اجرایی کودکان مبتلا به ADHD می‌شود و تمرینات مادر و کودک با یکدیگر، می‌تواند روش مناسبی برای بهبود کارکردهای اجرایی کودکان دارای این اختلال باشد.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • اختلال نقص توجه- بیش‌فعالی
  • ورزش والد کودک
  • کارکردهای اجرایی
  • ورزش هم‌زمان
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  • Receive Date: 24 August 2021
  • Revise Date: 23 May 2022
  • Accept Date: 22 May 2022
  • First Publish Date: 22 May 2022