The Effect of Spontaneous Play in Nature on the Fine Motor Skills and Visual-Motor Integration of Preschool Children

Document Type : Original Articles

Authors

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 MSc Student, Department of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of spontaneous play in nature on the fine motor skills and visual-motor integration of preschool children.Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental research with pretest-posttest design, two groups were selected using convenient sampling method. Statistical sample of research consisted of 30 preschool children aged 4.5-6.5 years (15 from the Nature School and 15 from kindergarten). The fine motor skills and visual-motor integration were assessed using Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test, respectively.Results: MANOVA test showed that outdoor space activity had positive and significant effect on all of the variables of fine motor skills (P = 0.001) and visual-motor integration (P = 0.001) of children. While indoor space activity had a significant effect on visual-motor integrity (P = 0.013) and among the variables of fine motor skill, only on visual-motor control (P = 0.048). Outdoor and indoor spaces activity caused 71% and 13% changes in visual-motor control and 88% and 20% changes in visual-motor integrity in children, respectively.Conclusion: The type of environment which children play, have significant effect on their development. The natural environment is rich from stimulants, which has a remarkable effect on children’s development. Therefore, it is suggested that children have more activity in natural environment during their childhood to improve their motor and perceptual development.

Keywords

Article Title [فارسی]

تأثیر بازی خودانگیخته در طبیعت بر مهارت‌های حرکتی ظریف و یکپارچگی بینایی- حرکتی کودکان پیش‌دبستانی

Authors [فارسی]

  • زهرا فتحی رضائی 1
  • کوثر عباس‌پور 2
  • شیرین یزدانی 1

1 استادیار، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت‌ بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

Abstract [فارسی]

مقدمه: هدف از انجام پژوهش حاضر، بررسی تأثیر بازی خودانگیخته در طبیعت بر مهارت‌های حرکتی ظریف و یکپارچگی بینایی- حرکتی کودکان پیش‌دبستانی بود.مواد و روش‌ها: این مطالعه به صورت نیمه تجربی، همراه با طرح پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون و با روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند انجام شد. نمونه‌ها متشکل از 30 کودک پیش‌دبستانی 5/6-5/4 ساله، 15 نفر از مدرسه طبیعت و 15 نفر از مهدکودک بود. جهت سنجش مهارت‌های حرکتی ظریف (زمان پاسخ، کنترل بینایی- حرکتی و سرعت و چالاکی اندام فوقانی)، از آزمون تبحر حرکتی Bruininks-Oseretsky و به منظور ارزیابی یکپارچگی بینایی- حرکتی، از آزمون‌ یکپارچگی بینایی- حرکتی Beery-Buktenica استفاده شد.یافته‌ها: بر اساس آزمون MANOVA، فعالیت در فضای باز، تأثیر مثبت و معنی‌داری بر تمام متغیرهای مهارت‌‌های حرکتی ظریف (001/0 = P) و یکپارچگی بینایی- حرکتی (001/0 = P) کودکان داشت. در مقابل، فعالیت در فضای سرپوشیده بر یکپارچگی بینایی- حرکتی (013/0 = P) و از متغیرهای مهارت‌ حرکتی ظریف نیز تنها بر کنترل بینایی- حرکتی (048/0 = P) تأثیر معنی‌داری داشت. فعالیت در فضای باز طبیعی و فضای سرپوشیده به ترتیب باعث 71 و 13 درصد از تغییرات در کنترل بینایی- حرکتی و 88 و 20 درصد از تغییرات در یکپارچگی بینایی- حرکتی کودکان شد.نتیجه‎گیری: نوع محیطی که کودکان در آن فعالیت می‌کنند، تأثیر بسزایی بر رشد آن‌ها دارد. محیط طبیعی، محیطی غنی از محرک‌ها می‌باشد که تأثیر چشمگیری بر رشد کودکان می‌گذارد. بر همین اساس، پیشنهاد می‌شود که در دوران کودکی جهت بهبود رشد حرکتی و ادراکی، کودکان در فضاهای طبیعی فعالیت بیشتری داشته باشند.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • بازی خودانگیخته
  • طبیعت
  • مهارت‌ حرکتی
  • یکپارچگی بینایی- حرکتی
  • کودکان
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Volume 14, Issue 3 - Serial Number 3
August 2018
Pages 143-150
  • Receive Date: 16 March 2019
  • Revise Date: 06 July 2022
  • Accept Date: 22 May 2022
  • First Publish Date: 22 May 2022