The Comparison of Brain Volume in Soccer and Non-soccer Players and Evaluation of the Impact of Repeated Heading History: Case-control Study

Document Type : Original Articles

Authors

1 PhD Student, Department of Sports Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, AND Instructor, Department of Sports Sciences and Physical Education, Bandar-e Lengeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hormozgan,

2 Associate Professor, Department of Sports Injuries and Corrective Exercises, School of Sports Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Sports Injuries and Corrective Exercises, School of Sports Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Neurology, Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran

5 Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology, Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Heading is a technique by which a player uses an unprotected head to intentionally hit the ball and direct it during match. There are growing concerns about the negative impact of repetitive hits to head in heading skill. The present study endeavored to compare the brain volume in soccer players, futsal players, and non-athletes. This study examined the role of heading in the Evans’ index as well.Materials and Methods: Sample consisted of 83 healthy men (55 professional athletes: 30 soccer and 25 futsal players, and 28 non-athletes). Athletes were purposively selected by HeadCount-2w questionnaire from among active soccer and futsal players in the professional league of Hormozgan Province, Iran, and non-athlete samples were randomly selected from those referred to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) center of Persian Gulf Hospital in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Evans’ Index was employed to assess brain volume. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the means of the groups.Results: Mean exposure in soccer and futsal players (match or exercise and the possibility of being in a heading position) was 343.40 ± 49.99 and 352.40 ± 44.84 sessions per year, respectively, and the mean number of headings per year in soccer players was 1632. The mean Evans’ index was 0.248 ± 0.021 in soccer players, 0.247 ± 0.020 in futsal players, and 0.251 ± 0.018 in non-athletes. All the samples had a normal Evans’ index. The results of ANOVA showed no significant difference between Evans’ index of soccer and futsal players and non-athletes (P = 0.76, F(2) = 0.272) and between Evans’ index in different playing positions (P = 0.47, F(2) = 0.772).Conclusion: The Evans’ index in Iranian soccer and futsal players playing in Hormozgan League was probably not affected by subconcussive impact of heading. Nevertheless, it seems likely that the index may be affected by exercise and physical activity. Further researches are recommended.

Keywords

Article Title [فارسی]

مقایسه حجم مغز در فوتبالیست‌ها و غیر فوتبالیست‌ها و بررسی اثر هدینگ مکرر: مطالعه مورد- شاهدی

Authors [فارسی]

  • حسین دادگر 1
  • عبدالحمید دانشجو 2
  • منصور صاحب الزمانی 3
  • امید اسماعیلی 4
  • منا خراجی 5

1 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی، گروه آسیب‌شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر، کرمان و مربی، گروه تربیت بدنی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، واحد بندر لنگه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، هرمزگان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه آسیب‌شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه باهنر، کرمان، ایران

3 استاد، گروه آسیب‌شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه باهنر، کرمان، ایران

4 استادیار، بخش نورولوژی، بیمارستان شهید محمدی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی هرمزگان، هرمزگان، ایران

5 استادیار، بخش رادیولوژی، بیمارستان شهید محمدی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی هرمزگان، هرمزگان، ایران

Abstract [فارسی]

مقدمه: هدینگ (Heading) تکنیکی است که به موجب آن، بازیکن از سر محافظت نشده برای ضربه عمدی به توپ و هدایت آن در حین بازی استفاده می‌کند. نگرانی‌های فزاینده‌ای در مورد آثار منفی ضربات تکراری به سر در مهارت هدینگ وجود دارد. هدف از انجام پژوهش حاضر، مقایسه حجم مغز در فوتبالیست‌ها، فوتسالیست‌ها و افراد غیر ورزشکار بود. همچنین، نقش هدینگ بر شاخص Evan’s بررسی گردید.مواد و روش‌ها: شرکت‌کنندگان این مطالعه شامل 83 مرد سالم [55 ورزشکار حرفه‌ای (30 فوتبالیست و 25 فوتسالیست) و 28 غیر ورزشکار] بود. نمونه‌های ورزشکار با استفاده از نسخه دو هفته‌ای پرسش‌نامه شمارش تعداد هد، از بین فوتبالیست‌ها و فوتسالیست‌های شاغل در لیگ حرفه‌ای استان هرمزگان به صورت هدفمند و نمونه‌های غیر ورزشکار نیز از بین مراجعان به مرکز Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) بیمارستان خلیج‌فارس بندرعباس به صورت تصادفی انتخاب شدند. جهت بررسی حجم مغز، از شاخص Evan’s استفاده گردید. به منظور مقایسه میانگین گروه‌ها، آزمون ANOVA مورد استفاده قرار گرفت.یافته‌ها: میانگین مواجهه در سال در فوتبالیست‌ها و فوتسالیست‌ها به ترتیب 99/49 ± 40/343 و 84/44 ± 40/352 جلسه (مسابقه یا تمرین و احتمال قرار گرفتن در موقعیت هد زدن است) و میانگین تعداد هد در سال در فوتبالیست‌ها، 1632 هد بود. میانگین شاخص Evan’s در فوتبالیست‌ها 021/0 ± 248/0، در فوتسالیست‌ها 020/0 ± 247/0 و در غیر ورزشکاران 018/0 ± 251/0 گزارش گردید. تمام نمونه‌ها شاخص Evan’s نرمال داشتند. نتایج آزمون ANOVA نشان داد که بین شاخص Evan’s بازیکنان فوتبال، فوتسال و غیر ورزشکاران (76/0 = P، 272/0 = (2)F) و بین شاخص Evan’s در پست‌های مختلف بازی (47/0 = P، 772/0 = (2)F) اختلاف معنی‌داری وجود نداشت (05/0 < P).نتیجه‎گیری: شاخص Evan’s در فوتبالیست‌ها و فوتسالیست‌های ایرانی شاغل در لیگ استان هرمزگان شاید متأثر از ضربات ریز و مکرر ناشی از مهارت هدینگ نیست؛ هرچند این احتمال وجود دارد که شاخص مذکور از ورزش و فعالیت بدنی تأثیر بپذیرد. انجام تحقیقات بیشتر در این زمینه توصیه می‌شود.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • شاخص Evan’s
  • حجم مغز
  • فوتبال
  • هدینگ
  • هد
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  • Receive Date: 14 August 2021
  • Revise Date: 23 May 2022
  • Accept Date: 22 May 2022
  • First Publish Date: 22 May 2022