Vol 16: 2020:110-117

The Effects of Core Stability Exercises on Balance and Walking in Elderly Fallers with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Control Trial

Hassan Sadeghi, Seyed Sadredin Shojaedin, Elham Alijanpour, Ali Abbasi

DOI: 10.22122/jrrs.v1i1.3502


Introduction: Falling is a serious concern among elderly which have made a lot of discussions between gerontologists and physical therapists. Falling is common, dangerous, and costly among the elderly population. Fear of falling again among elderly faller leads to decrease self-confidence, loss of life quality, and inability. The purpose of this study was to find the effects of core stability exercise on balance and functional mobility among elderly with a history of falling.

Materials and Methods: Thirty elderly people with a history of falling were randomly divided into control (n = 15) and experimental (n = 15) groups. The experimental group performed a 40-minute core stability exercise for eight weeks and three sessions per week. Before and after eight weeks of exercise program, static balance with open and closed eyes, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test for dynamic balance, and 10-meter walking were taken in both groups. The control group only have the daily activities. The two-way ANOVA test was used to compare the mean differences between groups.

Results: Central stability training had a significant effect on static balance with open and closed eye, TUG, and 10-meter walking (P = 0.001). The control group did not show a significant effect on the factors of static balance with open eyes, static balance of closed eyes, TUG, and 10-meter walking. Following training period, the experimental group showed significantly better status in all variables compared to control group (0.91 ≤ η2 ≤ 0.94, P = 0.001).

Conclusion: It seems that strengthening the muscles in the central area of the body leads to maintaining balance in the elderly during daily activities. Since independency is very important in people with a history of falling, it can improve their independence and active participation by performing these exercises as simple, low-cost, and appropriate activities for home exercise.


Balance; Core stability; Elderly fallers; Functional mobility; Walking, Mild cognitive impairment

Full Text:



Harper S. The challenges of twenty-first-century demography. In: Torp C, editor. Challenges of aging: Pensions, retirement and generational justice. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2015. p. 17-29.

Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. World population ageing 2013. New York, NY: United Nations; 2013.

Tanjani PT, Motlagh ME, Nazar MM, Najafi F. The health status of the elderly population of Iran in 2012. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2015; 60(2): 281-7.

Buford TW, Anton SD, Clark DJ, Higgins TJ, Cooke MB. Optimizing the benefits of exercise on physical function in older adults. PM R 2014; 6(6): 528-43.

Cimilli Ozturk T, Ak R, Unal Akoglu E, Onur O, Eroglu S, Saritemur M. Factors associated with multiple falls among elderly patients admitted to emergency department. Int J Gerontol 2017; 11(2): 85-9.

Prata MG, Scheicher ME. Relationship between fear of falling and quality of life in older women fallers fear of falling and quality of life in older. MOJ Gerontol Ger 2017; 1(5): 128-31.

Motalebi SA, Cheong LS, Iranagh JA, Mohammadi F. Effect of low-cost resistance training on lower-limb strength and balance in institutionalized seniors. Exp Aging Res 2018; 44(1): 48-61.

Sadeghi H, Hakim MN, Hamid TA, Amri SB, Razeghi M, Farazdaghi M, et al. The effect of exergaming on knee proprioception in older men: A randomized controlled trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2017; 69: 144-50.

Inacio M, Ryan AS, Bair WN, Prettyman M, Beamer BA, Rogers MW. Gluteal muscle composition differentiates fallers from non-fallers in community dwelling older adults. BMC Geriatr 2014; 14: 37.

Sharaf AY, Ibrahim HS. Physical and psychosocial correlates of fear of falling: Among older adults in assisted living facilities. J Gerontol Nurs 2008; 34(12): 27-35.

Peeters GM, Jones M, Byles J, Dobson AJ. Long-term consequences of noninjurious and injurious falls on well-being in older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2015; 70(12): 1519-25.

Ansai JH, Andrade LP, Masse FAA, Goncalves J, Takahashi ACM, Vale FAC, et al. Risk factors for falls in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and mild alzheimer disease. J Geriatr Phys Ther 2019; 42(3): E116-E121.

Muir SW, Gopaul K, Montero Odasso MM. The role of cognitive impairment in fall risk among older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing 2012; 41(3): 299-308.

Iwamoto J, Suzuki H, Tanaka K, Kumakubo T, Hirabayashi H, Miyazaki Y, et al. Preventative effect of exercise against falls in the elderly: A randomized controlled trial. Osteoporos Int 2009; 20(7): 1233-40.

Porto JM, Spilla SB, Cangussu-Oliveira LM, Freire Junior RC, Nakaishi APM, de Abreu DCC. Effect of aging on trunk muscle function and its influence on falls among older adults. J Aging Phys Act 2020; 1-8. [Epub ahead of print].

Golubic A, Sarabon N, Markovic G. Association between trunk muscle strength and static balance in older women. J Women Aging 2019; 1-10. [Epub ahead of print.].

Granacher U, Lacroix A, Muehlbauer T, Roettger K, Gollhofer A. Effects of core instability strength training on trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults. Gerontology 2013; 59(2): 105-13.

Arnold C, Lanovaz J, Oates A, Craven B, Butcher S. The effect of adding core stability training to a standard balance exercise program on sit to stand performance in older adults: A pilot study. J Aging Phys Act 2015; 23(1): 95-102.

Ray T, Adams KJ, DeBeliso M. the relationship betweencore stability & squat ratio in resistance-trained males. International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science 2017; 5(2): 7-15.

Sadeghi H, Shariat A, Asadmanesh E, Mosavat M. The effects of core stability exercise on the dynamic balance of volleyball players. IInt J Appl Exerc Physiol 2013; 2(2): 1-10.

Anderson DE, Quinn E, Parker E, Allaire BT, Muir JW, Rubin CT, et al. Associations of computed tomography-based trunk muscle size and density with balance and falls in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2016; 71(6): 811-6.

Bastani M, Ghasemi G, Sadeghi M, Afshon A, Sadeghi H. The effect of selected core stability exercises on balance and muscle endurance in the elderly patients undergoing hemodialysis. Physical Treatments 2017; 7(2): 89-96.

Crum RM, Anthony JC, Bassett SS, Folstein MF. Population-based norms for the Mini-Mental State Examination by age and educational level. JAMA 1993; 269(18): 2386-91.

Jeffreys I. Developing a progressive core stability program. Strength Cond J 2002; 24(5): 65-6.

Stuckenschneider T, Rudiger S, Abeln V, Askew CD, Wollseiffen P, Schneider S. Rating of perceived exertion - a valid method for monitoring light to vigorous exercise intensity in individuals with subjective and mild cognitive impairment? Eur J Sport Sci 2020; 20(2): 261-8.

Franchignoni F, Tesio L, Martino MT, Ricupero C. Reliability of four simple, quantitative tests of balance and mobility in healthy elderly females. Aging (Milano) 1998; 10(1): 26-31.

Peters DM, Fritz SL, Krotish DE. Assessing the reliability and validity of a shorter walk test compared with the 10-Meter Walk Test for measurements of gait speed in healthy, older adults. J Geriatr Phys Ther 2013; 36(1): 24-30.

Deathe AB, Miller WC. The L test of functional mobility: measurement properties of a modified version of the timed "up & go" test designed for people with lower-limb amputations. Phys Ther 2005; 85(7): 626-35.

Aslankhani M, Farsi A, Sohbatiha M. The effect of aquatic exercise on balance and gait characteristics of healthy elderly inactive men. J Res Rehabil Sci 2012; 8(2): 279-88. [In Persian].

Orssatto LBDR, Moura BM, Sakugawa RL, Radaelli R, Diefenthaeler F. Leg press exercise can reduce functional hamstring: quadriceps ratio in the elderly. J Bodyw Mov Ther 2018; 22(3): 592-7.

Mohammadzade H, Abedini M, Rezaye S, Safari H. The impacts of Pilates trainings on improvements of dynamic balance and gait performance in elderly men with falling background. Rehabilitation Medicine 2013; 2(3): 11-8. [In Persian].

Kim SG, Yong MS, Na SS. The effect of trunk stabilization exercises with a swiss ball on core muscle activation in the elderly. J Phys Ther Sci 2014; 26(9): 1473-4.

Granacher U, Gollhofer A, Hortobagyi T, Kressig RW, Muehlbauer T. The importance of trunk muscle strength for balance, functional performance, and fall prevention in seniors: A systematic review. Sports Med 2013; 43(7): 627-41.

Zou L, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Tian X, Xiao T, Liu X, et al. The effects of Tai Chi Chuan versus core stability training on lower-limb neuromuscular function in aging individuals with non-specific chronic lower back pain. Medicina (Kaunas) 2019; 55(3): 60.

Kibler WB, Press J, Sciascia A. The role of core stability in athletic function. Sports Med 2006; 36(3): 189-98.

McGough EL, Hsu LY, Thompson H, Teri L. concurrent validity of postural sway measures in older adults with cognitive impairment. Phys Occup Ther Geriatr 2018; 36(4): 399-410.

Colston M. Core stability, part 2: The core-extremity link. Athl Ther Today 2012; 17(2): 10-5.

Hu H, Meijer OG, van Dieen JH, Hodges PW, Bruijn SM, Strijers RL, et al. Muscle activity during the active straight leg raise (ASLR), and the effects of a pelvic belt on the ASLR and on treadmill walking. J Biomech 2010; 43(3): 532-9.

Ferraro R, Garman S, Taylor R, Parrott JS, Kadlowec J. The effectiveness of transverse abdominis training on balance, postural sway and core muscle recruitment patterns: a pilot study comparison across age groups. J Phys Ther Sci 2019; 31(9): 729-37.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.