Vol 13, No 4: 2017:225-232

The Physiological Oxidative Stress Response to Cold Water Immersion Following a Repeated Sprint Activity in Trained Men

Dashti Al-jamour, Mohammad Reza Kordi, Abbas Ali Gaeini, Abbas Hosseini, Nima Gharahdaghi, Mohammad Reza Rahmati

DOI: 10.22122/jrrs.v13i4.2935


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to measure the changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) after repeated-sprint activity (RSA), as the indicators of physiological oxidative stress response, followed by cold water immersion (CWI).  

Materials and Methods: Twenty trained men were assigned to take part in this study. After performing repeated-sprint activity, 10 participants immersed in the cold water (14°C), and 10 participants passively sat on a chair at room temperature. Blood sampling was performed before and after repeated-sprint activity, after cold water immersion or passive rest, and after 24 hours.

Result: The repeated-sprint activity increased the serum levels of protein carbonyl (t = 3.97, P = 0.001) and malondialdehyde (t = 9.54, P < 0.001). Cold water immersion had a significant effect on serum protein carbonyl levels after repetitive activities; and the results of mean differences indicated a significant reduction immediately (5.92) and 24 hours after recovery (12.93), compared to before recovery. Moreover, the results indicated a significant reduction in protein carbonyl 24 hours after recovery (7.01), compared to immediately after recovery. However, the results of repeated measures analysis of variance on the measurement stages showed that only the time effect (P < 0.001) was significant; but the group effect (P = 0.572), and the interaction of the measurement steps with the group (P = 0.915) were not significant.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that repeated-sprint activity resulted in increased oxidative stress, but cold water immersion did not have more impact than passive rest.


Oxidative stress; High-intensity intermittent exercise; Cold temperature; Immersion

Full Text:



Vezzoli A, Pugliese L, Marzorati M, Serpiello FR, La Torre A, Porcelli S. Time-course changes of oxidative stress response to high-intensity discontinuous training versus moderate-intensity continuous training in masters runners. PLoS One 2014; 9(1): e87506.

Trivino-Paredes J, Patten AR, Gil-Mohapel J, Christie BR. The effects of hormones and physical exercise on hippocampal structural plasticity. Front Neuroendocrinol 2016; 41: 23-43.

Reid MB. Free radicals and muscle fatigue: Of ROS, canaries, and the IOC. Free Radic Biol Med 2008; 44(2): 169-79.

Powers SK, Howley ET. Exercise physiology: Theory and application to fitness and performance. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2014.

Finsterer J. Biomarkers of peripheral muscle fatigue during exercise. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2012; 13: 218.

Morales-Alamo D, Calbet JA. Free radicals and sprint exercise in humans. Free Radic Res 2014; 48(1): 30-42.

Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A, Bishop D. Repeated-sprint ability - part I: Factors contributing to fatigue. Sports Med 2011; 41(8): 673-94.

Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. Free radicals in biology and medicine. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 1989.

Machado AF, Ferreira PH, Micheletti JK, de Almeida AC, Lemes IR, Vanderlei FM, et al. Can water temperature and immersion time influence the effect of cold water immersion on muscle soreness? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med 2016; 46(4): 503-14.

Ihsan M, Watson G, Abbiss CR. What are the Physiological mechanisms for post-exercise cold water immersion in the recovery from prolonged endurance and intermittent exercise? Sports Med 2016; 46(8): 1095-109.

Leeder J, Gissane C, van SK, Gregson W, Howatson G. Cold water immersion and recovery from strenuous exercise: a meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 2012; 46(4): 233-40.

Stephens JM, Halson S, Miller J, Slater GJ, Askew CD. Cold-water immersion for athletic recovery: One size does not fit all. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2017; 12(1): 2-9.

Bleakley CM, Davison GW. What is the biochemical and physiological rationale for using cold-water immersion in sports recovery? A systematic review. Br J Sports Med 2010; 44(3): 179-87.

Sutkowy P, Wozniak A, Boraczynski T, Mila-Kierzenkowska C, Boraczynski M. Postexercise impact of ice-cold water bath on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in healthy men. Biomed Res Int 2015; 2015: 706141.

Wozniak A, Wozniak B, Drewa G, Mila-Kierzenkowska C. The effect of whole-body cryostimulation on the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in blood of elite kayakers after training. Eur J Appl Physiol 2007; 101(5): 533-7.

Siems WG, Brenke R, Sommerburg O, Grune T. Improved antioxidative protection in winter swimmers. QJM 1999; 92(4): 193-8.

de Freitas VH, Ramos SP, Bara-Filho MG, Freitas DG, Coimbra DR, Cecchini R, et al. Effect of cold water immersion performed on successive days on physical performance, muscle damage, and inflammatory, hormonal, and oxidative stress markers in volleyball players. J Strength Cond Res 2017. [Epub ahead of print].

Hoseini A, Kordi MR, Pournemati P, Jamshidi AA, AL-Jamour D, Hadjizadeh S. Neuro-muscular fatigue induced by repeated sprint exercise: The effect of cold water immersion-part i. J Res Rehabil Sci 2017; 13(1): 28-35. [In Persian].

Yeargin SW, Casa DJ, McClung JM, Knight JC, Healey JC, Goss PJ, et al. Body cooling between two bouts of exercise in the heat enhances subsequent performance. J Strength Cond Res 2006; 20(2): 383-9.

May MJ, Ghosh S. Signal transduction through NF-kappa B. Immunol Today 1998; 19(2): 80-8.

Souza-Silva AA, Moreira E, de Melo-Marins D, Scholer CM, de Bittencourt PIJ, Laitano O. High intensity interval training in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation in physically active men. Temperature (Austin) 2016; 3(1): 167-75.

Fatouros IG, Chatzinikolaou A, Douroudos II, Nikolaidis MG, Kyparos A, Margonis K, et al. Time-course of changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant status responses following a soccer game. J Strength Cond Res 2010; 24(12): 3278-86.

Groussard C, Rannou-Bekono F, Machefer G, Chevanne M, Vincent S, Sergent O, et al. Changes in blood lipid peroxidation markers and antioxidants after a single sprint anaerobic exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2003; 89(1): 14-20.

Bogdanis GC, Stavrinou P, Fatouros IG, Philippou A, Chatzinikolaou A, Draganidis D, et al. Short-term high-intensity interval exercise training attenuates oxidative stress responses and improves antioxidant status in healthy humans. Food Chem Toxicol 2013; 61: 171-7.

Bloomer RJ, Davis PG, Consitt LA, Wideman L. Plasma protein carbonyl response to increasing exercise duration in aerobically trained men and women. Int J Sports Med 2007; 28(1): 21-5.

Bloomer RJ, Goldfarb AH, Wideman L, McKenzie MJ, Consitt LA. Effects of acute aerobic and anaerobic exercise on blood markers of oxidative stress. J Strength Cond Res 2005; 19(2): 276-85.

McGinnis G, Kliszczewiscz B, Barberio M, Ballmann C, Peters B, Slivka D, et al. Acute hypoxia and exercise-induced blood oxidative stress. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2014; 24(6): 684-93.

Shungu DC, Weiduschat N, Murrough JW, Mao X, Pillemer S, Dyke JP, et al. Increased ventricular lactate in chronic fatigue syndrome. III. Relationships to cortical glutathione and clinical symptoms implicate oxidative stress in disorder pathophysiology. NMR Biomed 2012; 25(9): 1073-87.

Siems WG, van Kuijk FJ, Maass R, Brenke R. Uric acid and glutathione levels during short-term whole body cold exposure. Free Radic Biol Med 1994; 16(3): 299-305.

Glasgow PD, Ferris R, Bleakley CM. Cold water immersion in the management of delayed-onset muscle soreness: is dose important? A randomised controlled trial. Phys Ther Sport 2014; 15(4): 228-33.

Bailey DM, Erith SJ, Griffin PJ, Dowson A, Brewer DS, Gant N, et al. Influence of cold-water immersion on indices of muscle damage following prolonged intermittent shuttle running. J Sports Sci 2007; 25(11): 1163-70.

Marzatico F, Pansarasa O, Bertorelli L, Somenzini L, Della Valle G. Blood free radical antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxides following long-distance and lactacidemic performances in highly trained aerobic and sprint athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1997; 37(4): 235-9.

Margonis K, Fatouros IG, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, Douroudos I, Chatzinikolaou A, et al. Oxidative stress biomarkers responses to physical overtraining: implications for diagnosis. Free Radic Biol Med 2007; 43(6): 901-10.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.