Vol 13, No 1: 2017:36-43

Timing and Activation Intensity of Shoulder Muscles during Handball Penalty Throwing in Subjects with and without Shoulder Impingement

Zahra Zonnor, Nader Farahpour, Amirali Jafarnezhadgero

DOI: 10.22122/jrrs.v13i1.2842

Abstract


Introduction: Shoulder injuries are common among athletes in sports that involve overhead throwing of the ball such as handball. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the timing and activation intensity of shoulder muscles during handball penalty throwing in individuals with shoulder pain and in control subjects.

Materials and Methods: Using BTS FREE EMG 300 system with bipolar surface electrodes, the timing (onset) and intensity of the activation of the shoulder muscles were measured including upper trapezius, anterior, middle and posterior deltoid, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, supraspinatus and triceps during penalty throwing. Multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for between group comparisons with the significance level P< 0.05.

Results: The activation intensity of upper trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles in the healthy individuals were about 50.74% and 43.42% higher than in patients. Middle deltoid in healthy individuals was about 38.05% smaller than that in patients. In control group, supraspinatus muscle started earlier (23.5 ms) than the shoulder motion initiation. Triceps muscle was activated about 18.5 ms later than shoulder motion initiation. In patients, supraspinatus muscle started sooner (11 ms) and triceps brachialis muscle started later than the other muscles (22.16 ms).

Conclusion: The coordination of shoulder muscles i.e. the onset and intensity of muscle activity is disturbed in the patient group during throwing. Hence, strength and stretching programs are recommended for athletes to reduce the risk of shoulder pain syndrome. The rehabilitation program can be focused on modifying the pattern of activity in upper trapezius, supraspinatus, latissimus dorsi and deltoid muscles in addition to pain control in the rehabilitation centers.


Keywords


Impingement; Electromyography; Shoulder; Muscle

Full Text:

PDF

References


Taha SA, Akl AI, Zayed MA. Electromyographic analysis of selected upper extremity muscles during jump throwing in handball. American Journal of Sports Science 2015; 3(4): 79-84.

Edouard P, Degache F, Oullion R, Plessis JY, Gleizes-Cervera S, Calmels P. Shoulder strength imbalances as injury risk in handball. Int J Sports Med 2013; 34(7): 654-60.

Strom V, Roe C, Knardahl S. Work-induced pain, trapezius blood flux, and muscle activity in workers with chronic shoulder and neck pain. Pain 2009; 144(1-2): 147-55.

Escamilla RF, Andrews JR. Shoulder muscle recruitment patterns and related biomechanics during upper extremity sports. Sports Med 2009; 39(7): 569-90.

Reinold MM, Gill TJ, Wilk KE, Andrews JR. Current concepts in the evaluation and treatment of the shoulder in overhead throwing athletes, part 2: Injury prevention and treatment. Sports Health 2010; 2(2): 101-15.

Ayatollahi K, Okhovatian F, Kalantari KK, Baghban AA. A comparison of scapulothoracic muscle electromyographic activity in subjects with and without subacromial impingement syndrome during a functional task. J Bodyw Mov Ther 2017; 21(3): 719-24.

Wilk KE, Arrigo CA, Hooks TR, Andrews JR. Rehabilitation of the overhead throwing athlete: There is more to it than just external rotation/internal rotation strengthening. PMR 2016; 8(3 Suppl): S78-S90.

Gorostiaga EM, Granados C, Ibanez J, Izquierdo M. Differences in physical fitness and throwing velocity among elite and amateur male handball players. Int J Sports Med 2005; 26(3): 225-32.

Moraes GF, Faria CD, Teixeira-Salmela LF. Scapular muscle recruitment patterns and isokinetic strength ratios of the shoulder rotator muscles in individuals with and without impingement syndrome. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2008; 17(1 Suppl): 48S-53S.

Cools AM, Witvrouw EE, Declercq GA, Danneels LA, Cambier DC. Scapular muscle recruitment patterns: trapezius muscle latency with and without impingement symptoms. Am J Sports Med 2003; 31(4): 542-9.

Michener LA, Walsworth MK, Doukas WC, Murphy KP. Reliability and diagnostic accuracy of 5 physical examination tests and combination of tests for subacromial impingement. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2009; 90(11): 1898-903.

Diederichsen LP, Norregaard J, Dyhre-Poulsen P, Winther A, Tufekovic G, Bandholm T, et al. The activity pattern of shoulder muscles in subjects with and without subacromial impingement. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2009; 19(5): 789-99.

Ludewig PM, Cook TM. Alterations in shoulder kinematics and associated muscle activity in people with symptoms of shoulder impingement. Phys Ther 2000; 80(3): 276-91.

Wadsworth DJ, Bullock-Saxton JE. Recruitment patterns of the scapular rotator muscles in freestyle swimmers with subacromial impingement. Int J Sports Med 1997; 18(8): 618-24.

Huang TS, Huang CY, Ou HL, Lin JJ. Scapular dyskinesis: Patterns, functional disability and associated factors in people with shoulder disorders. Man Ther 2016; 26: 165-71.

Phadke V, Camargo P, Ludewig P. Scapular and rotator cuff muscle activity during arm elevation: A review of normal function and alterations with shoulder impingement. Rev Bras Fisioter 2009; 13(1): 1-9.

JANDA V. Muscle weakness and inhibition (pseudoparesis) in back pain syndromes. In: Grieve GP, editor. Modern manual therapy of the vertebral column. Edinburgh, UK: Churchill-Livingstone; 1986. p. 197-201.

Reddy AS, Mohr KJ, Pink MM, Jobe FW. Electromyographic analysis of the deltoid and rotator cuff muscles in persons with subacromial impingement. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2000; 9(6): 519-23.

Lund JP, Donga R, Widmer CG, Stohler CS. The pain-adaptation model: a discussion of the relationship between chronic musculoskeletal pain and motor activity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1991; 69(5): 683-94.

Castelein B, Cagnie B, Parlevliet T, Cools A. Scapulothoracic muscle activity during elevation exercises measured with surface and fine wire EMG: A comparative study between patients with subacromial impingement syndrome and healthy controls. Man Ther 2016; 23: 33-9.

Bandholm T, Rasmussen L, Aagaard P, Jensen BR, Diederichsen L. Force steadiness, muscle activity, and maximal muscle strength in subjects with subacromial impingement syndrome. Muscle Nerve 2006; 34(5): 631-9.

Castelein B, Cools A, Parlevliet T, Cagnie B. The influence of induced shoulder muscle pain on rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscle activity during elevation of the arm. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2017; 26(3): 497-505.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.