ویژه نامه توانبخشی، دوره 10، شماره 8، 1393:948-63

نقش پلاستیسیتی کراس مدال در سیستم شنوایی و بینایی

مرضیه امیری, مرضیه کردونی, مهسا بخیت

DOI: 10.22122/jrrs.v10i8.1608

چکیده


مقدمه: نروپلاستی سیتی توانایی سیستم عصبی در ایجاد تغییر و ترمیم پس از وقوع آسیب است. وقتی یکی از مدالیته های حسی حذف می شود در رفتار سایر مدالیته ها و عملکرد کورتیکال آن ها تغییراتی ایجاد می شود، به گونه ای که پردازش این مدالیته ها علاوه بر کورتکس اختصاصی ِ مربوط به پردازش آن، به سایر مناطق مغز که ورودی حس خود را دریافت نمی کنند نیز گسترش می یابد و برای آن منطقه از مغز که از ورودی حسی خود محروم شده است فرآیندی جبرانی صورت می پذیرد. به این پدیده پلاستی سیتی کراس مدال گفته میشود. این پژوهش به بررسی جوانب مختلف پلاستی سیتی کراس مدال بین سیستم های شنوایی و بینایی و آخرین یافته های علمی در این زمینه میپردازد.

مواد و روش ها: مقالات موجود در پایگاه های استنادی Pubmed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, با استفاده از کلیدواژه های Neuro- plasticity and Auditory, Neuro-plasticity and Visual, Neuro-plasticity  در فواصل سالهای 1980 تا 2013 مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.

یافته ها: پس از بررسی چکیده و محتوای مقالات، از مجموع 95 مقاله به دست آمده، تعداد 70 مقاله با محتوای مورد نظر به دست آمده و به طور کامل بررسی شد.

نتیجه گیری: درجات پلاستی سیتی کرال مدال به سن وقوع محرومیت در آن حس خاص وابسته است. در افراد نابینا  حواس شنوایی و سوماتوسنسوری به اشغال فضاهای اکسی پیتال می پردازند و موجب تقویت فعالیت هایی نظیر شنیدن، بازیابی اطلاعات از حافظه، مکان یابی های فضایی، درک موسیقی و درک خط بریل میشوند. در افراد ناشنوا نیز حواس بینایی و سوماتوسنسوری بخش هایی از لوب تمپورال را به خود اختصاص داده و و فعالیت هایی نظیر لوکالیزاسیون بینایی، پردازش محرکات بینایی محیطی، تقویت حس لامسه و پردازش حرکت را تقویت میکنند.

واژه های کلیدی:

پلاستی سیتی نرونال، پلاستی سیتی کراس مدال، بینایی، شنوایی 

تمام متن:

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مراجع


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